A Federal Judiciary Supremacy of federal Law Local

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A Federal Judiciary • Supremacy of federal Law • Local orientation of lower courts

A Federal Judiciary • Supremacy of federal Law • Local orientation of lower courts • Citizen access to justice Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center

Debates on the Judicial System • Geographical extension of the court system • Supreme

Debates on the Judicial System • Geographical extension of the court system • Supreme Court justices on circuit • Right of appeal to the Supreme Court • Balance of federal and state jurisdiction • Managing caseloads • Institutional independence Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center

The Constitutional Outline • One Supreme Court • Optional “inferior” courts • “Judicial power”

The Constitutional Outline • One Supreme Court • Optional “inferior” courts • “Judicial power” of the United States – Cases under the Constitution, laws, and treaties – Admiralty and maritime – Disputes between citizens of different states Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center

Judiciary Act of 1789 • Three types of courts: – Supreme Court—appeals from state

Judiciary Act of 1789 • Three types of courts: – Supreme Court—appeals from state and federal courts – Circuit courts—most important federal trials, some appeals – District courts—admiralty and maritime cases, lesser crimes and suits Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center

Protecting Local Legal Cultures • Judicial districts within state borders • Use of state

Protecting Local Legal Cultures • Judicial districts within state borders • Use of state rules and procedures • Residency requirements for district judges • Circuit riding for Supreme Court justices Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center

Politics and Competing Visions for the Courts • Judiciary Act of 1801 – Full

Politics and Competing Visions for the Courts • Judiciary Act of 1801 – Full federal jurisdiction – New circuit judges – No circuit riding for justices • Republicans restore the system of 1789 Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center

Courts for an Expanding Nation • New circuits for new states • The limits

Courts for an Expanding Nation • New circuits for new states • The limits of circuit riding • Establishment of circuit judgeships, 1869 Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center

Federal Jurisdiction • New government responsibilities: – Copyright – Land claims – Bankruptcy –

Federal Jurisdiction • New government responsibilities: – Copyright – Land claims – Bankruptcy – Slave trade • Circuit courts, 1875—all federal questions Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center

The Significance of the Circuit Courts • Supreme Court justices’ interact with lawyers and

The Significance of the Circuit Courts • Supreme Court justices’ interact with lawyers and the public • Understanding local variations in the law • Defining federal law in the trial courts Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center

A Burdened Judiciary • An unmanageable Supreme Court docket • Balancing the need for

A Burdened Judiciary • An unmanageable Supreme Court docket • Balancing the need for speedy justice with a right to review • Implications of restricting appeals Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center

Establishment of Courts of Appeals • Courts of appeals in every circuit • New

Establishment of Courts of Appeals • Courts of appeals in every circuit • New circuit judges • Final jurisdiction in many cases Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center

Redefining the Role of the Supreme Court • Certiorari • Limiting circuit duties •

Redefining the Role of the Supreme Court • Certiorari • Limiting circuit duties • Expanding discretionary jurisdiction • Emphasis on constitutional questions and circuit disparities Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center

Insuring Timely Justice • New courts and multiple judgeships • New types of judges:

Insuring Timely Justice • New courts and multiple judgeships • New types of judges: – Magistrate judges – Bankruptcy judges • Growth of court staff Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center

Institutional Independence • Judicial Conference • Administrative Office of the U. S. Courts •

Institutional Independence • Judicial Conference • Administrative Office of the U. S. Courts • Federal Judicial Center Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center

An Enduring Federalism • Three-tiered judiciary preserves federal system • Uniform national law •

An Enduring Federalism • Three-tiered judiciary preserves federal system • Uniform national law • Access to justice Prepared by the Federal Judicial Center