A Coaches Dozen 12 FUNdamental Principles for Building

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A Coaches Dozen: 12 FUNdamental Principles for Building Young & Healthy Athletes Avery Faigenbaum,

A Coaches Dozen: 12 FUNdamental Principles for Building Young & Healthy Athletes Avery Faigenbaum, Ed. D. , FACSM, FNSCA Dept. of Health & Exercise Science The College of New Jersey

Youth Sport Participation

Youth Sport Participation

What are we really trying to do with these kids? Win Adult games? Health?

What are we really trying to do with these kids? Win Adult games? Health? Childhood Health? Adult Exercise?

Health Club Membership, Under 18 yrs. Millions (IHRSA, 2006) +58%

Health Club Membership, Under 18 yrs. Millions (IHRSA, 2006) +58%

What does it take to be a youth coach?

What does it take to be a youth coach?

12 FUNdamental Principles Build a Strong Foundation

12 FUNdamental Principles Build a Strong Foundation

Principle #1 Young athletes are not miniature adults • Chronological age • Biological age

Principle #1 Young athletes are not miniature adults • Chronological age • Biological age • Training age • Emotional differences • Social differences • Reasons to be active • Responses to training

Performance Variable Physiologic Development and Performance in Boys and Girls Age (years)

Performance Variable Physiologic Development and Performance in Boys and Girls Age (years)

Possible Outcomes of Exercise Training Physiologic Variable (Rowland, 2001) ? ? ? Sensitive Period

Possible Outcomes of Exercise Training Physiologic Variable (Rowland, 2001) ? ? ? Sensitive Period Age (years) 12

How much is too much? Sunday = 1 hour Monday = 2. 5 hours

How much is too much? Sunday = 1 hour Monday = 2. 5 hours Tuesday = 5. 5 hours Wednesday= 5 hours Thursday = 2. 5 hours Friday = 5 hours Saturday = 5. 5 hours 27 hours 13

An Additional Outcome of Excessive Exercise Training (Adapted from Rowland, 2001) Untrained Trained Overtrained

An Additional Outcome of Excessive Exercise Training (Adapted from Rowland, 2001) Untrained Trained Overtrained Physiologic Variable 12 ? ? ? 10 Sensitive Period 8 6 4 2 0 4 6 8 10 12 Age (years) 14 16 18 20 14

Principle #2 Value Preparatory Conditioning

Principle #2 Value Preparatory Conditioning

Overuse Injuries in the Young Athlete (Dr. Lyle Micheli, Children’s Hospital Boston) • Training

Overuse Injuries in the Young Athlete (Dr. Lyle Micheli, Children’s Hospital Boston) • Training errors • Environment/equipment • Anatomic malalignments • Growth • Muscle-tendon imbalance • Underlying disease states • Cultural deconditioning

Physical Activity for Youth (Faigenbaum, SCJ, 2001) Sport Competition Sport Training FUNdamental Fitness General

Physical Activity for Youth (Faigenbaum, SCJ, 2001) Sport Competition Sport Training FUNdamental Fitness General Conditioning Lifestyle Physical Activities

Participation in sports should evolve out of preparatory fitness conditioning Plan for success 18

Participation in sports should evolve out of preparatory fitness conditioning Plan for success 18

Potential Benefits of Youth Strength and Conditioning • Increase strength • Increase power •

Potential Benefits of Youth Strength and Conditioning • Increase strength • Increase power • Improve body composition • Enhance BMD • Improve sports performance • Reduce sports injuries

At what age can children start strength training?

At what age can children start strength training?

Principle #3 Avoid Sport Specialization Before Adolescence 80 -20 Rule

Principle #3 Avoid Sport Specialization Before Adolescence 80 -20 Rule

Developmental Symmorphosis No single component should develop faster than the rest of the system

Developmental Symmorphosis No single component should develop faster than the rest of the system as a whole

The Developing Brain Paul Thompson, UCLA Laboratory of Neuroimaging MRI scans of children and

The Developing Brain Paul Thompson, UCLA Laboratory of Neuroimaging MRI scans of children and teens, 15 years of brain development 25

Principle #4 Enhance Physical Literacy

Principle #4 Enhance Physical Literacy

Childhood Obesity is Up *Physical Literacy is Down *

Childhood Obesity is Up *Physical Literacy is Down *

Become Aware of Weaknesses • Identify weaknesses • Identify strengths • ABC’S • Agility

Become Aware of Weaknesses • Identify weaknesses • Identify strengths • ABC’S • Agility • Balance • Coordination • Strength Awareness breeds success

Earn the Right

Earn the Right

Principle #5 Better to Undertrain than Overtrain • Sports practice • Sports conditioning •

Principle #5 Better to Undertrain than Overtrain • Sports practice • Sports conditioning • “Private” conditioning • Part-time job • School, family….

1972 2010

1972 2010

More is Just More Training + Restoration = Adaptation Training + Training = Maladaptation

More is Just More Training + Restoration = Adaptation Training + Training = Maladaptation Red Zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Under-recovery > Under-performance

Value Less Intense Training • Learning required concentration & interest • Focus on practicing

Value Less Intense Training • Learning required concentration & interest • Focus on practicing skills correctly • Well-planned activities can maximize recovery Anyone can make an athlete tired

Principle #6 Focus on Positive Education Play is the work of childhood

Principle #6 Focus on Positive Education Play is the work of childhood

What is fun?

What is fun?

Principle #7 Maximize Recovery

Principle #7 Maximize Recovery

Recovery Strategies for Young Athletes • 1. Cool-down • 6. Vary workouts • 2.

Recovery Strategies for Young Athletes • 1. Cool-down • 6. Vary workouts • 2. Post-exercise food • 7. Music • 3. Stay hydrated • 8. Socialize • 4. Contrast shower • 9. Visualization • 5. Massage • 10. Adequate sleep

Sleep & High School Students • AAP, adolescents require 9 -10 hours/night • Sleep

Sleep & High School Students • AAP, adolescents require 9 -10 hours/night • Sleep survey to >3000 9 th-12 th graders – Wolfson & Carskadon, Child Development, 1998 – Median amount of sleep was 7. 5 hrs – 25% reported sleeping 6. 5 hrs or less • Sleep survey to athletes & nonathletes – Faigenbaum, et al, SCJ. , 2002 – Average amount of sleep was 6. 6 hrs – No difference between athletes and nonathletes – 94% of the athletes noted they need more sleep

 • Alcohol Intoxication • – Inability to focus – Decrease alertness – Lack

• Alcohol Intoxication • – Inability to focus – Decrease alertness – Lack of motivation – Poor decision making – Decrease reaction time – Decreased strength Sleep deprivation – Inability to focus – Decrease alertness – Lack of motivation – Poor decision making – Decrease reaction time – Decreased strength Poor Performance

Principle #8: It’s Not What You Take It’s What You Do

Principle #8: It’s Not What You Take It’s What You Do

Principle #9 Get Connected: Don’t be a Sub • • • “Feeling connected” Listen

Principle #9 Get Connected: Don’t be a Sub • • • “Feeling connected” Listen & show interest Catch kids being good Be enthusiastic Show & tell Be a positive role model

Principle #10 Make a Long-Term Commitment www. softball. bc. ca

Principle #10 Make a Long-Term Commitment www. softball. bc. ca

LTAD: General to Specific Fundamental stage ~6 -9 Learning to train ~9 -12 Training

LTAD: General to Specific Fundamental stage ~6 -9 Learning to train ~9 -12 Training to train, ~12 -16 Training to compete, ~16 -18 Training to win

Principle #11 There Are No Secrets Need qualified coaching, well designed practice sessions and

Principle #11 There Are No Secrets Need qualified coaching, well designed practice sessions and a long-term commitment

Principle #12 Never Stop Learning • Own experiences & share ideas • Peer-reviewed journals

Principle #12 Never Stop Learning • Own experiences & share ideas • Peer-reviewed journals • Professional conferences • Talk with colleagues

What are we really trying to do with these kids?

What are we really trying to do with these kids?

Thank you! • Dr. Lyle Micheli • Dr. Wayne Westcott • Dr. Tom Rowland

Thank you! • Dr. Lyle Micheli • Dr. Wayne Westcott • Dr. Tom Rowland • Pat Mediate • Jim Mc. Farland • Tracy Radler