A Brief Family Tree for the Prophet Muhammad Abu Bakr Abu Talib Muhammad’s Uncle Friend/Early Convert 2 nd Caliph Khadija First Wife Prophet Muhammad Ali Aisha Fatima Muhammad’s Cousin 4 th Caliph/Ist Imam Hassan Hussein 2 nd Imam 3 rd Imam Zaynab Umm Al-Kalthum Ali Zain Al- Abideen 4 th Imam All other Imams are descended from this line The family tree has been simplified and is designed to cover only the relevant filial relations that directly apply to the Sunni/Shia split within Islam.
The Rashidun (632 -661) The Rule of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs Name Ruled Death Known For Abu Baker 1 st Caliph 632 -634 Elected Natural causes, appointed his successor. Quelled rebellion and united Arabia Umar ibn al. Khattab 2 nd Caliph 634 -644 Appointed Stabbed in a Median mosque by a Persian POW with a personal grudge. Wars of expansion (power not religion but religion followed) to the great Middle East. Uthman ibn Affan 3 rd Caliph 644 -656 Elected Assassinated by those from the elite of Medina over the rise of status and power of the Umayyad clan. Expanded the empire to North Africa and Central Asia, but with much political cost. Standardized the Qu’ran. Ali ibn Abu Talib 4 th Caliph/Ist Imam 656 -661 Elected Assassinated by Kharajities, a group of dissenters to Ali’s rule. Ruled fur the first Fitnah (civil war). His place in history is denoted more for who he was rahter than what he did.
The 12 Shia Imams Name Rule Life and Death 1 Ali ibn Abu Talib 656 -661 660 -661 - Assassinated 2 Hasan ibn Ali 661 -669 625 -669 - Poisoned 3 Hussein ibn Ali 669 -680 626 -680 - Died at Battle of Karbala 4 Ali Zain Al- Abideen 680 -713 658 -713 - Poisoned 5 Mohammad Al-Baqir 713 -743 676 -743 - Poisoned 6 Jaffar Al- Sadiq 743 -765 703 -765 - Poisoned 7 Musa Al-Kathum 765 -799 745 -799 - Poisoned 8 Ali Al-Reda 799 -818 765 -818 - Poisoned 9 Muhammad al-Taqi 818 -835 810 -835 - Poisoned 10 Ali al-Hadi 835 -868 827 -868 - Poisoned 11 Hasan al-Askari 868 -874 846 -874 - Poisoned 12 Mehdi Al-Muntadar 874 -? 868 -? Hidden
Sunni/Shia Belief Comparison Chart Sunni Shi’a Believers Called Sunnis Shiites, Shi’I Meaning of Name “well-trodden path” or “tradition” “party” or “partisans” of Ali Estimated Followers 940 million 120 million % of Muslim population 90% 10% Primary locations Most Muslim countries Iran, Iraq, Yemen Belief that Muhammad designated a successor? No Yes True Successor of the Prophet Abu Bakr Ali ibn Abu Talib Qualifications for rule Any qualified leader Family of the Prophet Historical Leaders Caliphs Imams Al Mahdi Will come in the future Was already on earth, is currently the “hidden Iman” who will return at the end of time Concealing Faith for Self. Protection (taqiya) Under special circumstances only Emphasized Temporary Marriage Not allowed Still Practiced Holy Cities Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Najaf, Karbala Major Holidays Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr, Ashura Frequency of Prayer Five Times a Day although prayer is sometimes altered to 3 times a day by combining the morning and evening prayers together.