A Basic Spelling & Punctuation Review http: //grammar. ccc. commnet. edu/grammar/quizzes/punct 2_quiz. htm
Why is it important to pay attention to spelling or punctuation usage? • To write clear Standard American English (SAE) messages. • To meet proofreading expectations of and communication demands on college writers. • To meet your personal writing standards or your need to write well in your academic, business and personal lives. • To teach you to assess and evaluate your own writing strengths or deficits.
General Spelling Rules For Numbers Spell small numbers out in sentences. Small numbers, such as whole numbers smaller than ten, should be spelled out. Examples and Exceptions: 1. Ten students passed the exam. 2. Only 1000 students passed the exam. 3. One thousand students took the exam. (Spell out any number if it starts a sentence. ) 4. Of the 1000 students that took the exam, only 25 passed it with at least a grade of D and only 9 students scored a grade of C or better on it. (Be as consistent as possible. ) Slides info source: http: //grammar. ccc. commnet. edu/grammar/ppt Graphics: Microsoft
PROPER PUNCTUATION A Presentation to Help Student Support Services (SSS) Participants Learn Proper Punctuation Placement and Avoid Punctuation Pitfalls
Relevance & Purposes § Relevance: * “Some people write well, yet allow themselves to be disabled by a fear of punctuation and grammar. They know how to pre-write, organize, and revise, but proofreading for punctuation and grammar causes them difficulties. There’s no need to fear these conventions of standard written English. In fact, these conventions can help you become a more effective communicator. ” – Gary A. Olson § Purpose: This Power. Point Presentation is to provide you with a review of proper punctuation usage. *Quote retrieved at: http: //lilt. ilstu. edu/golson/punctuation/intro. html
Commonly-applied Punctuation Marks • Period (. ) • Question Mark (? ) • Exclamation Point (!) • Apostrophe ( ’ ) • Comma (, ) • Parentheses ( ) • Brackets [ ] • Semicolon (; ) • Colon : • Hyphen • Dash - • Quotation Marks “” Note: Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points are END MARKS. Slides info source: http: //grammar. ccc. commnet. edu/grammar/ppt Graphics: Microsoft
What is an end mark An end mark is punctuation that comes at the end of a sentence to let you know when the sentence ends. Punctuation supports reading by helping readers know when the writer has fully expressed an idea or point. Slides info source: http: //grammar. ccc. commnet. edu/grammar/ppt Graphics: Microsoft
The period is the most famous end mark. It comes at the end of statements and commands. It is raining today. Do not interrupt while I am talking. A question mark means something is being asked. Are you going to lunch? An exclamation mark shows excitement or strong Feeling. That is a huge dog! Source: http: //grammar. ccc. commnet. edu/grammar/ppt
The period is also used as more than just an end mark. It is used in abbreviations, too: Ì 1290 College Rd Ì Ì Ì . . . Ms. White Dr. Atchley E B White Slides info source: http: //grammar. ccc. commnet. edu/grammar/ppt
The Colon Not This one. . . The colon is made with two periods. It is used for time, and it comes before a list. Example: 11: 35 pm I will need the following items from the store: bananas, grapes, watermelon, and lemons. Example:
The Semi-colon The semi-colon is made with a period over a comma. It is a punctuation mark (; ) used to separate parts of a sentence or list and indicating a pause longer than a comma, but shorter than a period. In a sentence, a transition word may follow the semi-colon. Example: Latte is strong; however, he is no match for the heroic energy of the sun. ;
-- THE DASH A dash is a punctuation mark that writers use to denote a sudden break or shift in thought. (One dash = Two hyphens) I can -- no, I must -- I must dash toward the finish line. Use the dash: (1) to indicate a break or shift in thought: For example: Example: Do we -- can we--dare we ask for more money? (2) to introduce a word or group of words which you wish to emphasize. Example: What he needed most he never got —love. 3) to set off strongly distinguished parenthetical material: Example: I think--no, I am positive -- you should go. 4) to indicate omission of letters and words: For Example: Senator S-- was from my hometown. --
- THE HYPHEN Mark Of Separation Used Between Parts Of A Word. USE A HYPHEN: 1) To Separate (Join) The Parts Of Compound Words: Examples: fast-moving; sister-in-law; half-asleep; X-ray; know-it-all; forty-seven; three-fourths 2) To Indicate The Division Of A Word Broken At The End Of A Line: Examples: know-ledge, ste-no-gra-pher a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Never divide a monosyllable: Example: strength, laughed Do not divide a syllable with a silent vowel: Example: climbed, yelled Do not divide a word with only 4 letters: Example: also, only, open Divide two consonants standing between vowels: Example: struc-ture, alternative, exis-ten-tialism Do not divide sums of money. Do not divide initials in a name or in proper names. Do not divide units of time.
USE QUOTATION MARKS 1) To enclose every direct quotation and each part of an interrupted quotation: Example: “What will my starting salary be? ” I asked the manager. “Well, ” he replied, “I’m not sure. ” 2) in a dialogue. Use a separate paragraph for each change of speaker. Example: “Dad, ” cried Neil. “There, there, everything will be just fine, ” his dad said. 3) to enclose words with a widely different level of usage: Example: The person who has “had it” so far is his mother. 4) to enclose chapter headings and the titles of articles: Example: Grant wood’s famed painting, “American Gothic, ” was recently reproduced in American Gothic Journal. USE SINGLE QUOTATION MARKS (‘) to enclose a quotation within a quotation. Example: The coach said, ”when you say, ‘I’ll be there on time, ’ I expect you to mean what you say. ” Slides info source: http: //grammar. ccc. commnet. edu/grammar/ppt
THE APOSTROPHE’. . . looks like a single quotation mark, but is used for a different purpose. USES FOR AN APOSTROPHE: 1) 2) 3) 4) To form a possessive. EX: Joe’s mother’s brother To indicate a contraction. EX: It’s, which translates to It is. To indicate omission of a letter from words or a figure from numerals. EX: Yes, ma’am. To indicate the plurals of letters, numerals, symbols, abbreviations. EX: Only A’s, B’s and C’s are considered passing grades at the Art institute. Slides info source: http: //grammar. ccc. commnet. edu/grammar/ppt Graphics: Microsoft
The Comma , The comma is used to separate a list. Example: My favorite animals are giraffes, dogs, cats, and birds. It is also used between the date and the year. Example: Today is March 6, 2007, and I plan to enjoy today. A comma can also tell you where to pause in a sentence. Example: All is well, but not necessarily forgotten.
THE APOSTROPHE’ (cont. ) USE THE APOSTROPHE 1) And s to form the possessive case of a noun not ending in s: Ex: Children’s; town’s 2) To form the possessive case of a plural noun ending in s: Ex: Boys’ and ladies’ classrooms 3) Alone or with s to form the possessive of nouns ending is s: Ex: Robert Burns’ or Burns’s (rule: words of one syllable) 4) and s in the last element of compound nouns: Ex: My son-in-law’s boat; King Henry IV’s funeral; somebody else’s ticket 5) To show that letters of figures have been omitted: Ex: Aren’t; shouldn’t; the civil war was fought 1861 -’ 65. 6) And s to indicate the plurals of numerals, letters, etc. Ex: Uncrossed t’s look like 1’s. He uses too many and’s and but’s in speaking. Slides info source: http: //grammar. ccc. commnet. edu/grammar/ppt Graphics: Microsoft
Parenthesis -- One of a pair of shallow, curved signs (, ) used to enclose an additional inserted word or comment and distinguish it from the sentence in which it is found. Parentheses (plural) – [Definition from Microsoft version of Encarta Dictionary: English (North America)] Parentheses are round brackets: ( ) Example: Riva (Her name means “one who captivates or possesses an “ensnaring beauty. ”) wandered off into the forest and was lost for three days and two nights.
Bracket – (1) one of a pair of symbols, often [ ], used in keying or printing to indicate the insertion of special commentary, such as that made by an editor; (2) an alternative to parentheses. Brackets (plural) [Definition from Microsoft version of Encarta Dictionary: English (North America)] Example: Riva [Her name means “one who captivates or possesses an “ensnaring beauty. ”] wandered off into the forest and was lost for three days and two nights.