- Slides: 33
6 th Grade UBD - Unit 2 - Neolithic Revolution
Preview �Cultivation and Domestication- The Neolithic Revolution was the beginning of farming and settlement. This period represents a complete change in the way of life for the earliest hunter-gatherers. �Growth of Towns and Cities- As farming systems improved, food supplies increased and became steadier. This meant that settlements could support more people.
Reach Into Your Background � Farmers used to work small farms by themselves. They produced enough food to provide for their families and traded any surplus. How do you think food production in the United States has changed in the past 150 years? (5 minutes)
Partner Activity �Work with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)
Key Ideas- Cultivation and Domestication �Groups of hunter-gatherers lived for short periods in areas with plenty of natural resources. �Women began to plant seeds from wild crops to get more food. This was the start of agriculture as we know it today. �Early people also began to tame and breed animals. The animals were used as sources of food and as labor in the fields.
Neolithic Revolution � This was a time when humans largely shifted away from living as roaming hunter-gatherers. � Instead, they began living in farming communities. The Neolithic Revolution, or Agricultural Revolution, did not happen quickly. It occurred gradually, over several thousand years.
Neolithic Revolution � The cold temperatures of the Ice Age ended about 11, 700 years ago. � Climates around the globe began to warm � As these nomadic peoples moved from region to region, they began to find areas with lots of animals and plants and other natural resources.
Neolithic Revolution � People settled in the area that is today known as the Fertile Crescent. � This region used to have rich plant life and many kinds of animals. � People who settled in such areas learned how to help the local plant life grow.
Key Term Agriculture- The practice of cultivating the land or raising stock
Key Term Agricultural Revolution. The time when human begins first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
The First Crops � When there were no longer enough food and plants in an area, people needed to move to a new location. � Over time, they learned how to plant and grow certain crops. � Then they were able to better control their food supply. At that point, they could begin to settle in one place.
The First Crops � Most historians believe that women were the first people to begin farming. � This led to a slow change as women began to raise and harvest plants while men continued to hunt for food.
Trial and Error � Early farming was most likely a process of trial and error. � Many Neolithic settlements had pits or buildings to store crops. Storing crops allowed early farmers to keep their food supply steady.
Trial and Error � Farming developed in several parts of the world at about the same time. � What early farmers grew depended largely on their region’s climate. � Researchers generally believe that barley and wheat were the first crops that were planted and harvested.
The First Farm Animals � Scientists think dogs descended from wolves. � They also think that dogs were the first animals tamed and raised by humans. � Dogs were most likely domesticated by early nomads to help with hunting.
The First Farm Animals � People began taming and raising farm animals about 10, 000 years ago. They did this by herding local wild animals and leading them to pastures. � Goats and sheep were the first domesticated farm animals.
The First Farm Animals � They were used not only for food but also for wool, hides, and milk. � Their manure, or droppings, was used to make land more fertile for growing crops. People later tamed pigs and cattle, along with larger herd animals. � These animals could be used as labor in the fields.
The First Farm Animals � Living in close quarters with animals created some problems. � Sometimes diseases spread from animal populations to humans. � Despite this problem, the domestication of animals allowed farmers to increase the amount of food they could grow.
Domesticating Animals Reading Handout- Domesticating Animals
The First Farm Animals � With the use of tamed animals, fewer people were needed in the fields. � People could specialize in other activities that they were good at, such as making tools. � Specialization led to new ways of working that brought improvements to people's lives.
Sophisticated Stone Tools � Tools and the methods for making them got better in the Neolithic era. � Tool making advanced most quickly in places with large populations and a steady food supply. � People in the Neolithic era made tools from stone, wood, antlers, and bone.
Sophisticated Stone Tools � The creation of pottery reveals people’s increasing skill in controlling fire. Fire was a useful tool for Neolithic people. � Over time, people learned to use fire to melt metals for tool making. This advance ended the Neolithic era and brought in the Bronze Age.
Key Term Bronze Age- A period characterized by the manufacture and use of bronze tools and weapons.
Technology Then and Now Reading Handout- Technology Then and Now
Key Ideas- Growth of Towns and Cities � By planting seeds that produced more and better plants, farmers could feed more people and cities could grow. � Animals working in the fields made the farms more efficient. People could specialize in other things. This led to the growth of culture and new advances. � Growing cities, new tools, and better farming systems made it possible for people to spread far and wide. They moved into regions they could not have lived in before. � As people migrated, they brought their knowledge and farming methods with them. Agriculture spread across the globe.
Birth of Cities � Early settlements grew into villages and then towns. The larger towns were the centers of religion and government. � After hundreds of years of growth, the largest settlements had enough people, power, and wealth to be called cities.
Birth of Cities � Permanent settlements did not mean that people were no longer on the move. People continued to migrate. As people moved from place to place, they shared ideas and cultures. � Farming and the use of tools and technology spread, and the world’s population rose.
Key Term Migration- The movement of people from one country or locality to another.
Gradually Change � People in settled farming communities had an advantage over hunter-gatherer groups. � Their communities had advanced tools and large populations. � They could produce a steady supply of food. These communities could grow and spread faster.
Gradually Change � Over time, people changed from nomadic hunter-gatherers to settled members of farm-based communities. � This was a major change in early people’s way of life. It led to better health, longer life, and the beginning of civilizations. � This change happened gradually over thousands of years
The Agricultural Revolution Video- Crash Course- The Agricultural Revolution
Independent Activity � What has been the “muddiest” point so far in this lesson? That is, what topic remains the least clear to you? (4 minutes)
Partner Activity �Work with a neighbor and compare your muddiest point with theirs. Compare what things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)