6 Classes of Nutrients 6 Nutrients Carbohydrates Proteins

  • Slides: 18
Download presentation
6 Classes of Nutrients

6 Classes of Nutrients

6 Nutrients • • • Carbohydrates Proteins Fats (Lipids) Vitamins Minerals Water These 6

6 Nutrients • • • Carbohydrates Proteins Fats (Lipids) Vitamins Minerals Water These 6 nutrients you body NEEDS to function properly!!!

Carbohydrates • What are they? – Starches & sugars found in foods • What

Carbohydrates • What are they? – Starches & sugars found in foods • What is their function? – Body’s preferred source of energy • What if I don’t get enough? – Decreased energy • If I get too much? – Can be stored as fat

Types of Carbohydrates • SIMPLE – Sugars – Provide quick energy – Sweet to

Types of Carbohydrates • SIMPLE – Sugars – Provide quick energy – Sweet to the taste: honey, fruit, candy, etc. • COMPLEX – Starches/fibers – Provide long-lasting energy – Ex) potatoes, pasta, bread, etc.

Carbohydrates in your diet … • Carbohydrates should account for 45 -65% of your

Carbohydrates in your diet … • Carbohydrates should account for 45 -65% of your daily diet. • 1 gram of carbohydrates = 4 calories of energy.

Proteins • What are they? – Nutrients which build & maintain body tissues •

Proteins • What are they? – Nutrients which build & maintain body tissues • What is their function? – Build & maintain: muscle, skin, hair, nails, etc. • What if I don’t get enough? – Decrease in muscle & tissue maintenance • If I get too much? - Stored as fat

Types of Protein • Complete – Contain all essential amino acids – Come from

Types of Protein • Complete – Contain all essential amino acids – Come from animal/soy products – Complete proteins are what your body wants! • Incomplete – Lack some amino acids – Can combine to make complete proteins Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins!

Proteins in your diet … • Proteins should account for 10 -35% of your

Proteins in your diet … • Proteins should account for 10 -35% of your daily diet. • 1 gram of protein = 4 calories of energy.

Fats (Lipids) • What are the main functions of fats? – – – -

Fats (Lipids) • What are the main functions of fats? – – – - Provides energy Cushions organs Carries vitamins (A, D, E, K) Insulator Provides taste • What happens if I get too much fat? - Weight gain - Increased risk of heart disease

Cholesterol • A lipid (fat) found in all animal tissues • Cholesterol makes vitamin

Cholesterol • A lipid (fat) found in all animal tissues • Cholesterol makes vitamin D, cell membranes, and hormones • Types of cholesterol: – LDL = “bad” cholesterol – HDL = “good” cholesterol

Types of Fats • Saturated – Fats coming from animal products – Solid at

Types of Fats • Saturated – Fats coming from animal products – Solid at room temperature – Increase risk of heart disease • Unsaturated – Fats coming from plant products – Liquid at room temperature (oils) – Better for your heart than saturated fats Trans Fat = unsaturated fatty acids produced when vegetable oil is processed in to margarine and shortening … increase risk of heart disease. **Often in restaurant foods!

Fats in your diet … • Fats should account for 25 -35% of your

Fats in your diet … • Fats should account for 25 -35% of your daily diet. • 1 gram of fat = 9 calories of energy.

Vitamins • What are they? – Compounds needed in small amounts to regulate body

Vitamins • What are they? – Compounds needed in small amounts to regulate body processes and allow growth • What is their function? – Help with digestion, absorption, & metabolism • Each vitamin is needed and provides a specific function

Types of Vitamins • Water Soluble – Dissolve in water – Needed for energy

Types of Vitamins • Water Soluble – Dissolve in water – Needed for energy release – Too many water soluble vitamins are excreted in urine Vitamins do NOT provide energy!!! • Fat Soluble – Dissolve in fat – Remain in the body for long periods of time – 4 fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K – Too many can lead to a toxic build up – stored in fatty tissues, liver, & kidneys

Minerals • What are they? – Inorganic compounds (things that come from the earth)

Minerals • What are they? – Inorganic compounds (things that come from the earth) that are needed in small amounts • What is their function? – Regulate body processes • Ex) bone formation • Each mineral is needed! • Minerals do NOT provide energy!!!

Water • What are the main functions of water? – – – – Transports

Water • What are the main functions of water? – – – – Transports nutrients Carries away wastes Moistens eyes, mouth, nose; hydrates skin Forms main component of body fluids Acts as an insulator Protects against heat exhaustion Lubricates joints Helps with digestion

Dehydration • Individuals should drink 8+ glasses of water/day to prevent dehydration • Signs

Dehydration • Individuals should drink 8+ glasses of water/day to prevent dehydration • Signs of dehydration: – Thirst, dry mouth, flushed skin, fatigue, headache, impaired physical performance, increased body temp, dizziness, weakness, muscle spasms, delirium, poor blood circulation, failing kidney function, and possibly death

Water • 60% of your body is water!!! • Your daily water intake must

Water • 60% of your body is water!!! • Your daily water intake must balance your body’s use • Caffeine actually dehydrates you – it increases the amount of water excreted in urine • Water does NOT provide energy!