6 3 Appendicular Skeleton A Pectoral shoulder girdle

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6. 3 Appendicular Skeleton

6. 3 Appendicular Skeleton

A. Pectoral (shoulder) girdle • Clavicles (collar bones) a. Articulate medially with the manubrium

A. Pectoral (shoulder) girdle • Clavicles (collar bones) a. Articulate medially with the manubrium as the only attachment to the axial skeleton b. Articulates laterally with the scapula c. Serves as a brace for the scapula and stabilizes the shoulder

Pectoral girdle, cont 2. Scapulae (shoulder blade) a. Spine b. Acromion process c. Coracoid

Pectoral girdle, cont 2. Scapulae (shoulder blade) a. Spine b. Acromion process c. Coracoid process d. Glenoid cavity – articulates with the head of the humerus

Pectoral Girdle

Pectoral Girdle

B. Upper limb • Humerus a. Long bone of the arm b. Proximal end

B. Upper limb • Humerus a. Long bone of the arm b. Proximal end features 1)Head articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula 2)Greater and lesser tubercles 3)Intertubercular groove 4)Deltoid tuberosity c. Distal end features 1)Capitulum articulates with the head of the radius 2)Trochlea articulates with the ulna 3)Coronoid fossa 4)Olecranon fossa

Right Humerus

Right Humerus

2. Radius a. Lateral side of the forearm (thumb side) b. Head articulates with

2. Radius a. Lateral side of the forearm (thumb side) b. Head articulates with the capitulum of the humerus and fits into the radial notch of the ulna c. Radial tuberosity d. Ulnar notch e. Styloid process

3. Ulna – Longer bone of the forearm – Coronoid process – Olecranon process

3. Ulna – Longer bone of the forearm – Coronoid process – Olecranon process – Trochlear notch articulates with the trochlea of the humerus – Radial notch – Head – Styloid process

Right Radius & Ulna

Right Radius & Ulna

4. Hand wrist a. Wrist (carpus) contains eight small bones b. Five metacarpal bones

4. Hand wrist a. Wrist (carpus) contains eight small bones b. Five metacarpal bones form the palm c. Phalanges 1)Bones of the fingers 2)The thumb has only two phalanges (proximal and distal) 3)The other fingers have three phalanges each (proximal, middle, and distal)

Right Wrist & Hand

Right Wrist & Hand

C. Pelvic Girdle (hip) • Bony pelvis – two coxal bones, sacrum, and coccyx

C. Pelvic Girdle (hip) • Bony pelvis – two coxal bones, sacrum, and coccyx • False and true pelvises a. False pelvis - bounded laterally by flared parts of ilium – large b. True pelvis – ring bounded by sacrum, lower ilium, ischium, and pubic bones – smaller

3. Coxal bones a. Ilium (superior bone) 1)Iliac crest 2)Anterior and posterior iliac spines

3. Coxal bones a. Ilium (superior bone) 1)Iliac crest 2)Anterior and posterior iliac spines 3)Greater sciatic notch 4)Sacroiliac joint with sacrum b. Ischium (inferior & posterior bone) 1)Ischial tuberosity 2)Ischial spine

Coxal bones, cont c. Pubis (anterior, inferior bone) 1)Pubic symphysis 2)Obturator foramen d. The

Coxal bones, cont c. Pubis (anterior, inferior bone) 1)Pubic symphysis 2)Obturator foramen d. The three bones meet in the acetabulum – the socket articulation with the head of the femur

4. Pelvic gender differences a. Female has broader hips b. Female pelvis is wider

4. Pelvic gender differences a. Female has broader hips b. Female pelvis is wider c. Female inlet and outlet of the true pelvis are wider d. Female pelvic cavity is more shallow e. Female bones are lighter and thinner f. Female pubic arch is wider

The Pelvis

The Pelvis

D. Lower Limb • Femur a. Longest and strongest bone in the body b.

D. Lower Limb • Femur a. Longest and strongest bone in the body b. Proximal end features 1)Head fits into acetabulum of coxal bone 2)Greater and lesser trochanters 3)Linea aspera c. Distal end features 1)Medial and lateral epicondyles 2)Lateral and medial condyles articulate with the tibia 3)Patellar surface articulates with the patella

Right Femur

Right Femur

Lower limb, cont 2. Tibia a. b. c. d. e. f. Medial bone of

Lower limb, cont 2. Tibia a. b. c. d. e. f. Medial bone of the lower leg Bears the weight from the femur Medial and lateral condyles articulate with the femur Tibial tuberosity Anterior crest Medial malleolus articulates with the talus in the ankle 3. Fibula a. Lateral to the tibia b. Stabilizes ankle c. Lateral malleolus

Bones of the Right Leg

Bones of the Right Leg

Lower limb, cont 4. Foot and ankle a. Seven tarsal bones 1) Only the

Lower limb, cont 4. Foot and ankle a. Seven tarsal bones 1) Only the talus can move freely 2) The calcaneus and the talus support the weight of the body b. Five metatarsal bones form the instep c. The phalanges form the toes • Big toe has only two phalanges – proximal and distal • Three phalanges in other toes – proximal, middle, and distal

The Right Foot

The Right Foot

6. 4 Joints (Articulations)

6. 4 Joints (Articulations)

A. Classification of Joints • Classification according to the amount of movement a. Synarthrosis

A. Classification of Joints • Classification according to the amount of movement a. Synarthrosis – immovable b. Amphiarthrosis – slightly moveable c. Diarthrosis – freely moveable • Classification according to structure a. Fibrous b. Cartilaginous c. Synovial

B. Fibrous Joints • Fibrous connective tissue joins bone to bone • Typically immovable

B. Fibrous Joints • Fibrous connective tissue joins bone to bone • Typically immovable • Sutures of the cranium a. Coronal – between the parietal bones and the frontal bone b. Lambdoidal – between the parietal bones and the occipital bone c. Squamosal – between each parietal bone and each temporal bone d. Sagittal – between the parietal bones • Joints formed by each tooth in its socket

Sutures

Sutures

C. Cartilaginous Joints – Bones are joined by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage – Usually

C. Cartilaginous Joints – Bones are joined by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage – Usually slightly moveable – Hyaline cartilage a. Ribs to sternum b. Epiphysis to diaphysis – Fibrocartilage a. Between bodies of vertebrae – intervertebral disks b. Pubic symphysis

D. Synovial joints • General characteristics a. Bones do not touch each other b.

D. Synovial joints • General characteristics a. Bones do not touch each other b. Bones are separated by a joint cavity c. Usually freely moveable d. Joint cavity formed by extensions of the periosteum called the joint capsule e. Joint cavity lined by synovial membrane that produces synovial fluid f. Joint stabilized by the joint capsule, ligaments, and tendons

Synovial joints, cont 2. Protection of joint surfaces a. Articular cartilage b. Bursae –

Synovial joints, cont 2. Protection of joint surfaces a. Articular cartilage b. Bursae – fluid-filled sacs around the joint c. Menisci – fibrocartilage pads in the knee

General synovial joint Knee Joint

General synovial joint Knee Joint

3. Types of synovial joints and examples a. Saddle joint –carpometacarpal joint of thumb

3. Types of synovial joints and examples a. Saddle joint –carpometacarpal joint of thumb b. Ball-and-socket joint – shoulder and hip c. Pivot joint – ends of ulna and radius, atlas and axis d. Hinge joint – elbow and knee e. Gliding joint – within wrist and ankle f. Condyloid joint – knuckles

Types of Synovial Joints

Types of Synovial Joints

4. Movements permitted by synovial joints a. Angular movements 1) Flexion a)Dorsiflexion b)Plantar flexion

4. Movements permitted by synovial joints a. Angular movements 1) Flexion a)Dorsiflexion b)Plantar flexion 2) Extension a)Hyperextension 3) Adduction 4) Abduction

Movements permitted by synovial joints, cont b. Circular movements 1)Circumduction 2)Rotation 3)Supination 4)Pronation c.

Movements permitted by synovial joints, cont b. Circular movements 1)Circumduction 2)Rotation 3)Supination 4)Pronation c. Special movements 1)Inversion and eversion 2)Elevation and depression

Joint Movements

Joint Movements

E. Joint damage and repair • Joint inflammation and destruction • Arthritis a. Osteoarthritis

E. Joint damage and repair • Joint inflammation and destruction • Arthritis a. Osteoarthritis – deterioration of the articular cartilage; most common b. Rheumatoid arthritis – synovial membrane becomes inflamed and thickens; autoimmune disease c. Gout – excessive buildup of uric acid

Joint damage and repair, cont 3. Treatments for arthritis a. Main goal is to

Joint damage and repair, cont 3. Treatments for arthritis a. Main goal is to preserve function b. Pain management, physical therapy, and exercise c. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) surgery d. Joint replacement

Artificial joint replacement

Artificial joint replacement

6. 5 Effects of Aging

6. 5 Effects of Aging

A. Cartilage – Cartilage deteriorates – Chemical nature and color changes – Chondrocytes die

A. Cartilage – Cartilage deteriorates – Chemical nature and color changes – Chondrocytes die – Calcification occurs – Symptoms of arthritis appear B. Bone – Bone deteriorates – Osteoporosis develops – Increased incidence of fractures

Animation: Osteoporosis Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not

Animation: Osteoporosis Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http: //get. adobe. com/flashplayer.

6. 6 Homeostasis

6. 6 Homeostasis

A. Functions of the skeletal system Protection of internal organs Bones assist in all

A. Functions of the skeletal system Protection of internal organs Bones assist in all phases of respiration Bones store and release calcium Bones assist the lymphatic system and immunity • Bones assist digestion • The skeleton is necessary to locomotion • •

B. Functions of other systems • The integumentary and the muscles assist in protecting

B. Functions of other systems • The integumentary and the muscles assist in protecting internal organs • The digestive system absorbs calcium from food and the endocrine system regulates the storage of calcium in the bones • Cardiovascular system transports oxygen and nutrients to bones and wastes from bones • Movement of the bones is only possible because of the contraction of skeletal muscle