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5 Chapter From Self-Concept to Self-Management n Personality: Concepts and Controversy n Emotions: An Emerging OB Topic n Individual Differences: Self-Concept, Personality & Emotions
Self-concept n Cognitions held about oneself as a physical, social, spiritual, or moral being n Self-esteem – one’s overall self-evaluation n Self-efficacy – belief about one’s chances of successfully accomplishing a task n General n Specific n Self-fulfilling prophecy
Research shows n Self-concept n Varies by historical era, class, culture n Self-esteem – moderately related to life satisfaction n Low – negative self-view, trouble dealing with others, self-doubt n High n Self-efficacy n Low – learned helplessness n High - success
5 -7 Figure 5 -2 Effects of High Self-Efficacy Sources of Self-Efficacy Beliefs Prior Experience Feedback High “I know I can do this job” Prior Experience Mc. Graw-Hill Self-efficacy beliefs Behavioral Patterns § Be active—select best opportunities § Manage the situation— avoid or neutralize obstacles § Set goals—establish standards § Plan, prepare, practice § Try hard: persevere § Creatively solve problems § Learn from setbacks § Visualize success § Limit Stress Results Success © 2004 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
5 -8 Effects of Low Self-Efficacy Sources of Self-Efficacy Beliefs Feedback Prior Experience Self-efficacy beliefs Prior Experience Mc. Graw-Hill Low “I don’t think I can get the job done” Behavioral Patterns § Be passive § Avoid difficult tasks § Develop weak aspirations and low commitment § Focus on personal deficiencies § Don’t even try—make a weak effort § Quit or become discouraged because of setbacks § Blame setbacks on lack of ability or bad luck § Worry, experience stress, become depressed § Think of excuses for failing Figure 5 -2 cont. Results Failure © 2004 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
5 -9 Managers can foster self-efficacy through: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Mc. Graw-Hill Recruiting/selection/job assignments Job design Training and development Self-management Goal setting and quality improvement Coaching Leadership and mentoring Rewards © 2004 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Self-monitoring n Extent to which one observes own behavior, reads and adapts to social cues n Low – lack ability or motivation present desired appearance n Insensitive n High – have ability and desire to present desired appearance Insincere n Positively related to career success, conversationalism, leadership, performance in boundary-spanning positions n
Organizational Identification n. Integration of beliefs about one’s organization into one’s identity n. Can lead to loyalty, commitment, higher performance n. Can lead to loss of objectivity, groupthink, lack of constructive conflict
Personality n. The combination of stable physical and mental characteristics that give the individual her or his identity n. Interaction of environment (nurture) and genetics (nature) n. Trait
Research into personality testing at work shows n Questionable predictive ability due to doubtful n Doubtful predictive validity n Doubtful differential validity n Doubtful construct validity n Negatively impacted by faking n Validity can be improved
5 -13 Table 5 -3 The Big Five Personality Dimensions Personality Dimension Characteristics of a Person Scoring Positively on the Dimension 1) Extraversion Outgoing, talkative, social, assertive (promotions, salary, career satisfaction) 2) Agreeableness Trusting, good natured, cooperative, soft hearted 3) Conscientiousness Dependable, responsible, achievement, oriented, persistent (job performance, longevity) Relaxed, secure, unworried 4) Emotional stability 5) Openness to experience Mc. Graw-Hill Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad minded (school success) © 2004 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Research into Big 5 shows n. Valid personality measure n. O moderately related to school performance n. C moderately to strongly related to job performance n. C moderately related to longevity
Proactive Personalities are Valued Human Capital 5 -14 Proactive Personality action-oriented person who shows initiative and perseveres to change things Mc. Graw-Hill © 2004 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
5 -15 Locus of Control n External Locus of Control one’s life outcomes attributed to environmental factors such as luck or fate Mc. Graw-Hill n Internal Locus of Control belief that one controls key events and consequences in one’s life. © 2004 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
5 -16 Figure 5 -4 Positive and Negative Emotions Positive Emotions Anger (goal incongruent) Happiness /Joy Fright/ anxiety Pride Guilt/ shame Love/affection Sadness Envy/ jealousy Mc. Graw-Hill (goal congruent) Disgust Relief © 2004 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
5 -17 Emotional Intelligence n Emotional Intelligence ability to manage oneself and interact with others in a constructive way Mc. Graw-Hill © 2004 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
5 -18 Table 5 -5 Developing Personal and Social Competence through Emotional Intelligence Personal Competence: Self-Management Self-Awareness n n n Emotional self-awareness Accurate self-assessment Self-confidence n n n Mc. Graw-Hill Emotional self-control Transparency Achievement Initiative Optimism © 2004 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
5 -19 Table 5 -5 cont. Developing Personal and Social Competence through Emotional Intelligence Social Competence: Social Awareness n n n Empathy Organizational awareness Service Relationship Management n n n n Mc. Graw-Hill Inspirational leadership Influence Developing others Change catalyst Conflict management Building bonds Teamwork and collaboration © 2004 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
5 -20 Practical OB Research Insights about Emotions n EI differentially impacts managers and workers n Genders experience emotions similarly but express them differently n EI tests have questionable validity n Emotional Contagion people can “catch” one another’s bad mood or displayed negative emotions n Emotional Labor when an employee masks their true feelings and emotions--“faking” a positive attitude for the sake of the customer or organization n Can lead to bottled up anger and frustration n Emotional repression can lead to emotional exhaustion and burnout Mc. Graw-Hill © 2004 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
5 -22 Type A and Type B personalities n n Mc. Graw-Hill Figure 5 -6 cont. Type A n Intense desire to achieve n Extremely competitive n Sense of urgency n Can be hostile Type B n Relaxed n Patient n Feel no need to display or discuss achievements © 2004 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
5 -24 Figure 5 -6 cont. Research shows n Type A n n n Type B n Mc. Graw-Hill Related to heart disease Work more hours Often make poor decisions More likely to be involved in conflict Not good team players Tend to achieve career goals © 2004 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.