5 BELIEFS SYSTEMS I Animism One of the

  • Slides: 102
Download presentation
5. BELIEFS SYSTEMS

5. BELIEFS SYSTEMS

I. Animism - One of the earliest forms of religion - Based on the

I. Animism - One of the earliest forms of religion - Based on the earliest beliefs that spirits controlled the laws of nature - Belief that every living and nonliving thing in nature has a spirit - Belief System of many Early Prehistoric people - Cave drawings of these early people express the beliefs of Animism - Early Religions of China and Africa combined animism with reverence of ancestors (ancestor worship)

Cave Drawings

Cave Drawings

II. JUDAISM 1. ORIGINS - Unlike the other groups living in the Middle East

II. JUDAISM 1. ORIGINS - Unlike the other groups living in the Middle East that were polytheistic, the Hebrews were monotheistic. - This difference was one of the primary reasons why the Hebrews were discriminated throughout the Middle East - The Hebrews believe that Yahweh, is their one and only God - The Hebrews entered into Covenant a , or mutual contract with Yahweh - Covenant: In return for the Hebrews obeying his teachings, Yahweh would protect the Hebrews and their land. - The early history of the Hebrew people is contained in their holy book known as the Torah.

Yahweh’s “Covenant” With His People The most sacred text in the Jewish religious tradition.

Yahweh’s “Covenant” With His People The most sacred text in the Jewish religious tradition. The Torah

2. Hebrew Leaders A. Abraham - IN THE TORAH, YAHWEH CHOSE ABRAHAM TO BE

2. Hebrew Leaders A. Abraham - IN THE TORAH, YAHWEH CHOSE ABRAHAM TO BE THE FATHER OF THE HEBREW PEOPLE. - ACCORDING TO THE TORAH, YAHWEH COMMANDED ABRAHAM TO SETTLE INTO CANAAN AROUND 1800 BCE. - LATER IN 1650 BCE, THE HEBREWS LEFT CANAAN DUE TO DROUGHT AND THE THREAT OF FAMINE AND MIGRATED TO EGYPT. - HOWEVER, IN EGYPT, THE HEBREWS WERE FORCED INTO SLAVERY.

Abraham’s Journeys

Abraham’s Journeys

Abraham’s Journey from Ur

Abraham’s Journey from Ur

2. Hebrew Leaders ( Pg 2) B. Moses - Chief lawgiver of the Hebrew

2. Hebrew Leaders ( Pg 2) B. Moses - Chief lawgiver of the Hebrew Faith - Moses led the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt and guided the Hebrews through the Sinai Peninsula and into Palestine - This event is known as the Exodus and it is remembered every year during the festival of Passover - While on their journey to Palestine, Moses was given the Ten Commandments by Yahweh at Mount Sinai - The Ten Commandments is the set of religious and moral laws of the Jewish faith - As long as the Hebrews followed the Ten Commandments, they would be the Chosen People - Around 1025 BCE, the Hebrews organized the kingdom of Israel in Palestine

Moses “Shepherd of His People”

Moses “Shepherd of His People”

The Exodus

The Exodus

Route of the Exodus

Route of the Exodus

Mount Sinai

Mount Sinai

St. Catherine’s Monastery at Mount Sinai

St. Catherine’s Monastery at Mount Sinai

Moses and the 10 Commandments A new “covenant” with Yahweh

Moses and the 10 Commandments A new “covenant” with Yahweh

2. HEBREW LEADERS (Pg 3. ) C. DAVID -DURING THE REIGN OF KING DAVID,

2. HEBREW LEADERS (Pg 3. ) C. DAVID -DURING THE REIGN OF KING DAVID, THE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL FLOURISHED - HE SUCCESSFULLY CONQUERED OTHER CULTURES AND MADE ALLIANCES WITH OTHERS TO MAKE THE HEBREWS SUPREME IN PALESTINE

King David’s Empire

King David’s Empire

2. HEBREW LEADERS ( Pg. 4) D. SOLOMON - SON OF DAVID -DURING THE

2. HEBREW LEADERS ( Pg. 4) D. SOLOMON - SON OF DAVID -DURING THE REIGN OF SOLOMON, A GREAT TEMPLE WAS BUILT IN THE CAPITAL CITY OF JERUSALEM. -THIS TEMPLE WAS TO GLORIFY YAHWEH AND SYMBOLIZE THE HEBREW CULTURE. -HOWEVER, HIS LAVISH SPENDING REQUIRED HEAVY TAXES WHICH CAUSED DISCONTENT

Solomon’s Kingdom

Solomon’s Kingdom

Recreation of Ancient Jerusalem

Recreation of Ancient Jerusalem

The Temple Mount, Jerusalem Today Solomon’s Temple Wall: The “Wailing” Wall

The Temple Mount, Jerusalem Today Solomon’s Temple Wall: The “Wailing” Wall

3. END OF THE HEBREW KINGDOM - AFTER SOLOMON’S DEATH, THE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL

3. END OF THE HEBREW KINGDOM - AFTER SOLOMON’S DEATH, THE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL BECAME DIVIDED INTO TWO LANDS, ISRAEL IN THE NORTH AND JUDAH IN THE SOUTH. -AFTER THE DIVISION OF ISRAEL, CULTURES BEGAN ATTACKING AND TAKING OVER PARTS OF ISRAEL - DURING THE INVASIONS, THE TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM WAS DESTROYED. - MANY HEBREWS WERE EXILED TO THE KINGDOM OF BABYLON. -HOWEVER, IN 539 BCE, 40, 000 HEBREW EXILES WERE ALLOWED TO RETURN TO JERUSALEM AND REBUILD THE TEMPLE. THE SECOND TEMPLE WAS COMPLETED IN 515 BCE.

3. END OF THE HEBREW KINGDOM (Pg. 2) -HOWEVER, OTHER EMPIRES SUCH AS THE

3. END OF THE HEBREW KINGDOM (Pg. 2) -HOWEVER, OTHER EMPIRES SUCH AS THE PERSIANS, GREEKS AND THE ROMANS WOULD CONTROL THE AREA AND THE DESTINY OF THE HEBREW PEOPLE. -THE ROMANS EVENTUALLY EXPELLED THE JEWS FROM PALESTINE IN 315 CE. THIS EVENT IS KNOWN AS THEDIASPORA , OR SCATTERING OF THE PEOPLE. -WHEREVER JEWS SETTLED, THEY LIVE IN CLOSE -KNIT COMMUNITIES AND MAINTAINED THEIR IDENTITY THROUGH CAREFUL PRESERVATION OF TRADITION

Kingdoms of Judah & Israel

Kingdoms of Judah & Israel

Israelites in Captivity

Israelites in Captivity

The Jewish Diaspora

The Jewish Diaspora

III. Christianity 1. 1. ORIGINS - DURING THE ROMAN EMPIRE, MOST JEWS LIVED IN

III. Christianity 1. 1. ORIGINS - DURING THE ROMAN EMPIRE, MOST JEWS LIVED IN JUDEA. - AT FIRST, THE JEWS WERE NOT REQUIRED TO HONOR THE ROMAN GODS. - SOME JEWS KNOWN AS ZEALOTS FEARED THEIR RELIGION, JUDAISM WOULD BE WEAKENED BY OUTSIDE FORCES AND SUPPORTED A REBELLION AGAINST ROME TO ESTABLISH THEIR OWN INDEPENDENT STATE. - OTHER JEWS FELT THAT GOD WOULD SEND A MESSIAH, OR SAVIOR, TO LEAD THEM TO FREEDOM.

Roman Palestine

Roman Palestine

2. JESUS OF NAZARETH - IN THIS SETTING, CHRISTIANITY AROSE FOUNDED BY THE FOLLOWERS

2. JESUS OF NAZARETH - IN THIS SETTING, CHRISTIANITY AROSE FOUNDED BY THE FOLLOWERS OF THE JEWISH TEACHER JESUS OF NAZARETH. - JESUS HAD BEGUN TEACHING AROUND 27 CE, WANDERING THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRYSIDE WITH HIS FOLLOWERS OR DISCIPLES SPREADING HIS MESSAGE. - JESUS’ TEACHINGS WERE GROUNDED IN JEWISH TRADITIONS SUCH AS THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. HE EMPHASIZED THAT PEOPLE MUST LOVE OTHERS, AS THEY LOVE THEMSELVES. - THE ROMANS FEARED THAT JESUS WOULD LEAD TO AN UPRISING AND SOON AFTERWARD, JESUS CRUCIFIED. - ACCORDING TO THE BIBLE, THE HOLY BOOK OF CHRISTIANITY, JESUS AROSE FROM THE DEAD AFTER HIS CRUCIFIXION. - THE RESURRECTION OF JESUS BECAME THE CENTRAL EVENT OF THE CHRISTIAN FAITH.

The Beginnings of Christianity

The Beginnings of Christianity

The Life of Jesus Crucifixion Resurrection

The Life of Jesus Crucifixion Resurrection

3. THE BIBLE -THE MAIN SOURCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE TEACHINGS OF JESUS ARE

3. THE BIBLE -THE MAIN SOURCE OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE TEACHINGS OF JESUS ARE THE GOSPELS- THE FIRST FOUR BOOKS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT OF THE BIBLE. -THE BIBLE IS BROKEN INTO TWO PARTS 1)THE OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY OF THE HEBREW PEOPLE AND TEACHINGS OF VARIOUS PROPHETS 2) THE NEW TESTAMENT TEACHINGS OF JESUS, EARLY CHRISTIAN HISTORY AND THE WORKS OF THE APOSTLES

The Bible The Old Testament History of the Hebrews Ancient Prophets The New Testament

The Bible The Old Testament History of the Hebrews Ancient Prophets The New Testament The Gospels Works of the Apostles

4. Rise of the Roman Catholic Church -AFTER JESUS’ DEATH, HIS DISCIPLES WENT THROUGHOUT

4. Rise of the Roman Catholic Church -AFTER JESUS’ DEATH, HIS DISCIPLES WENT THROUGHOUT PALESTINE SPREADING HIS MESSAGE. -SOON CHRISTIANITY BEGAN TO SPREAD BECAUSE IT ACCEPTED EVERYONE, POOR OR RICH AND PROMISED HOPE AND FREEDOM FROM THE PENALTIES OF SIN AND DEATH. - THE ROMANS VIEWED CHRISTIANITY AS AN ATTACK ON ROMAN RELIGION AND LAW AND SOON OUTLAWED CHRISTIANITY. -DURING THE PERIOD OF CIVIL UNREST IN ROME, MANY PEOPLE TURNED TO CHRISTIANITY FOR HOPE. -IN 312 CE, EMPEROR CONSTANTINE DECLARED HIS SUPPORT OF CHRISTIANITY AND PROMOTED THE RELIGION THROUGHOUT THE EMPIRE. -IN 391 CE, EMPEROR THEODOSIUS MADE CHRISTIANITY THE OFFICIAL RELIGION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

The Spread of Christianity

The Spread of Christianity

THE ACCEPTANCE OF CHRISTIANITY Conversion of Constantine Emperor Theodosius

THE ACCEPTANCE OF CHRISTIANITY Conversion of Constantine Emperor Theodosius

5. CHURCH AUTHORITY - AS ROME BEGAN TO ACCEPT CHRISTIANITY, THE CHURCH BECAME HIGHLY

5. CHURCH AUTHORITY - AS ROME BEGAN TO ACCEPT CHRISTIANITY, THE CHURCH BECAME HIGHLY ORGANIZED. -PRIESTS CONDUCTED LOCAL SERVICES AND CEREMONIES. ABOVE THE PRIESTS, THE BISHOPS HEADED THE CHURCH IN EACH CITY. -OVER TIME, THE BISHOP OF ROME ADOPTED THE TITLE OF POPE, LATIN FOR FATHER. -THE POPE CLAIMED SUPREME AUTHORITY OVER OTHER BISHOPS. -THE POPE TRACED HIS AUTHORITY FROM JESUS’ DISCIPLE, PETER, WHO IS CONSIDERED THE FIRST POPE OF THE CHURCH. - IN 325 CE, THE COUNCIL OF NICAEA WROTE DOWN THE MAIN BELIEFS OF THE CHURCH. -IT CLAIMED THE EXISTENCE OF THE TRINITY -THREE PERSONS OR FORMS IN ONE GOD (FATHER, SON AND THE HOLY SPIRIT), WHICH IS THE CENTRAL BELIEF OF CHRISTIANS.

Pope Head of the Roman Catholic Church Peter The First Pope The Tomb of

Pope Head of the Roman Catholic Church Peter The First Pope The Tomb of St. Peter

The Holy Trinity Jesus God The Holy Spirit

The Holy Trinity Jesus God The Holy Spirit

IV. Islam 1. ORIGINS - IN ABOUT 570 CE, AN ARAB NAMED MUHAMMAD WAS

IV. Islam 1. ORIGINS - IN ABOUT 570 CE, AN ARAB NAMED MUHAMMAD WAS BORN IN MECCA, A PROSPEROUS TRADING CENTER ALONG THE RED SEA. MECCA WAS ALSO A RELIGIOUS CENTER THAT HOUSED MANY SACRED SHRINES TO THE ANCIENT ARAB GODS - MUHAMMAD WAS A SUCCESSFUL MERCHANT. HE WAS MARRIED AND HAD CHILDREN. -HOWEVER, HE WAS TROUBLED BY THE VARIOUS INJUSTICES TAKING PLACE THROUGHOUT THE MIDDLE EAST - HE OFTEN WENT TO THE OUTLYING DESERT TO PRAY IN SECLUSION.

IV. ISLAM (Pg. 2) -ACCORDING TO MUSLIM TRADITION, THE ANGEL GABRIEL VISITED MUHAMMAD AND

IV. ISLAM (Pg. 2) -ACCORDING TO MUSLIM TRADITION, THE ANGEL GABRIEL VISITED MUHAMMAD AND INSTRUCTED HIM THAT HE WAS CHOSEN TO BE GOD’S (ALLAH) PROPHET AND TO SPREAD THE MESSAGE OF ISLAM. - MUHAMMAD OBEYED THIS COMMAND BECAME A MISSIONARY SPREADING THE BELIEFS OF ISLAM. - THESE NEW MONOTHEISTIC BELIEFS THREATENED THE LIVELIHOOD OF THE MERCHANTS AND OTHER BUSINESSMEN THAT WERE MAKING MONEY FROM THE PILGRIMS COMING TO MECCA.

Muhammad Allah’s Greatest Prophet

Muhammad Allah’s Greatest Prophet

Ascension of Muhammad

Ascension of Muhammad

2. Main Beliefs -IN 622 CE, MUHAMMAD AND HIS FOLLOWERS LEFT MECCA TO TRAVEL

2. Main Beliefs -IN 622 CE, MUHAMMAD AND HIS FOLLOWERS LEFT MECCA TO TRAVEL TO MEDINA DUE TO MUHAMMAD’S DEATH THREATS. - MUSLIMS CALL MUHAMMAD’S JOURNEY TO MEDINA THE HEJIRAOR DEPARTURE. THIS REPRESENTED A TURNING POINT FOR ISLAM AS MANY MUSLIMS CONVERTED TO ISLAM WHEN MUHAMMAD ENTERED MEDINA. -THE FOLLOWERS OF ISLAM ARE CALLED MUSLIMS. THE SACRED SCRIPTURES OF ISLAM ARE CONTAINED IN THE QUR’AN. -THE QUR’AN IS THE FINAL AUTHORITY ON ALL MATTERS AND PROVIDES A GUIDE TO LIFE FOR MUSLIMS. -THE QUR’AN IS WRITTEN IN ARABIC, WHICH IS THE UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE OF THE MUSLIMS.

2. Main Beliefs (Pg. 2) THE CENTRAL BELIEF OF ISLAM IS THE FIVE PILLARS

2. Main Beliefs (Pg. 2) THE CENTRAL BELIEF OF ISLAM IS THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM OR THE FIVE BASIC DUTIES OF ISLAM. (1) MUSLIMS BELIEVE IN ONE GOD, ALLAH (2) MUSLIMS ARE EXPECTED TO PRAY FIVE TIME DAILY IN THE GENERAL DIRECTION OF MECCA (3) MUSLIMS ARE EXPECTED TO GIVE MONEY TO THE POOR (4) MUSLIMS ARE EXPECTED TO FAST FROM SUNRISE TO SUNSET DURING THE HOLY MONTH OF RAMADAN. - RAMADAN IS TO COMMEMORATE THE REVELATION OF THE QUR'AN TO MUHAMMAD (5) MUSLIMS ARE EXPECTED TO VISIT MECCA AT LEAST ONCE IN THEIR LIVES. (HAJJ-THE PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA)

The Qur’an Sacred Scripture of Islam

The Qur’an Sacred Scripture of Islam

Five Pillars of Islam

Five Pillars of Islam

(1) Belief in Allah

(1) Belief in Allah

(2) Prayer

(2) Prayer

(3) Charity

(3) Charity

(4) Fasting during Ramadan

(4) Fasting during Ramadan

(5) Hajj to Mecca

(5) Hajj to Mecca

2. Main Beliefs (Pg. 3) -ISLAM HAS NO FORMAL CHURCH OR CLERGY -ALL WORSHIPPERS

2. Main Beliefs (Pg. 3) -ISLAM HAS NO FORMAL CHURCH OR CLERGY -ALL WORSHIPPERS ARE CONSIDERED EQUAL -MUSLIMS MAY PRAY ALONE OR AT A MOSQUE, MUSLIM MEETING PLACE -THEY BELIEVE THAT ABRAHAM, MOSES AND JESUS ARE GREAT PROPHETS, BUT MUHAMMAD IS ALLAH’S FINAL MESSENGER AND HAS THE HIGHEST AUTHORITY

3. RISE OF ISLAM -WHEN MUHAMMAD DIED, HE LEFT NO HEIR TO LEAD ISLAM

3. RISE OF ISLAM -WHEN MUHAMMAD DIED, HE LEFT NO HEIR TO LEAD ISLAM A CLOSE FRIEND OF MUHAMMAD, ABU BAKR, WAS ELECTED CALIPH, OR SUCCESSOR TO THE PROPHET. -THE CALIPH ACTS AS BOTH SPIRITUAL AND POLITICAL LEADER. -HOWEVER A POWER STRUGGLE BEGAN OVER THE SELECTION OF THE NEXT CALIPHS. -TWO COMPETING BRANCHES EMERGED, THE SUNNIS AND SHIITES (1) SUNNISBELIEVE THAT THE CALIPH SHOULD BE CHOSEN BY MUSLIM LEADERS. (2) SHIITESBELIEVE THAT ONLY THE DESCENDANTS OF THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD SHOULD BE HIS SUCCESSORS. (CONCEPT OF DIVINE RIGHT)

Abu Bakr

Abu Bakr

Two Branches of Islam Sunni Muslims Shiite Muslims

Two Branches of Islam Sunni Muslims Shiite Muslims

3. RISE OF ISLAM (Pg. 2) -BETWEEN 622 CE AND 732 CE, ISLAM SPREAD

3. RISE OF ISLAM (Pg. 2) -BETWEEN 622 CE AND 732 CE, ISLAM SPREAD THROUGHOUT THE MIDDLE EAST AND INTO NORTHERN AFRICA AND SPAIN -MANY REASONS LED TO ITS EXPANSION (1) MESSAGE OF EQUALITY TO ALL BELIEVERS (2) DID NOT NEED A CHURCH OR CLERGY TO PRACTICE THEIR FAITH (3) UNITED ARABS FOR THE FIRST TIME THAT CONTAINED A SENSE OF PURPOSE TO KEEP SPREADING THE ISLAMIC FAITH -ARAB SOLDIERS THAT DIED SPREADING ISLAM WOULD IMMEDIATELY ENTER PARADISE (4) WEAKNESS OF THE BYZANTINE AND PERSIAN EMPIRES (5) BROUGHT STABLE, ORDERLY RULE TO PLACES OF CORRUPTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST (SENSE OF LIBERATION)

SPREAD OF ISLAM

SPREAD OF ISLAM

4. ISLAMIC SOCIETY -MUSLIM SOCIETY WAS MADE UP OF FOUR CLASSES (1) UPPER CLASS

4. ISLAMIC SOCIETY -MUSLIM SOCIETY WAS MADE UP OF FOUR CLASSES (1) UPPER CLASS - INCLUDED THOSE WHO WERE MUSLIMS AT BIRTH (2) CONVERTS TO ISLAM (3) CONSISTED OF CHRISTIANS AND JEWS - KNOWN AS THE “PEOPLE OF THE BOOK” - MUSLIMS EXTENDED RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE TO CHRISTIANS AND JEWS (4) SLAVES -PRISONERS OF WAR - NON-MUSLIMS

5. GOLDEN AGE OF ISLAM A. ACHIEVEMENTS -SCHOLARS PRESERVED THE GRECO-ROMAN CULTURE ARGUING THAT

5. GOLDEN AGE OF ISLAM A. ACHIEVEMENTS -SCHOLARS PRESERVED THE GRECO-ROMAN CULTURE ARGUING THAT THE PHILOSOPHERS AND ISLAM HAD THE SAME GOAL OF FINDING THE TRUTH -CONTRIBUTIONS IN ART, LITERATURE AND ARCHITECTURE THAT EXTENDED THEMES OF ISLAM -PRACTICED CALLIGRAPHY, ART OF ORNATE HANDWRITING -MUSLIMS CONTRIBUTING IN THE FIELDS OF MEDICINE, MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY

V. HINDUISM 1. ORIGINS -UNLIKE OTHER RELIGIONS, HINDUISM HAS NO SINGLE FOUNDER. -THE HINDU

V. HINDUISM 1. ORIGINS -UNLIKE OTHER RELIGIONS, HINDUISM HAS NO SINGLE FOUNDER. -THE HINDU RELIGION HAS EVOLVED AND CHANGED OVER THOUSANDS OF YEARS GROWING OUT OF THE DIVERSE PEOPLE WHO SETTLED INDIA WHICH INCLUDED THE ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF THE INDUS RIVER VALLEY.

2. MAIN BELIEFS - HINDUS BELIEVE IN ONE UNIFYING SPIRIT, BRAHMAN. -THE BRAHMAN CAN

2. MAIN BELIEFS - HINDUS BELIEVE IN ONE UNIFYING SPIRIT, BRAHMAN. -THE BRAHMAN CAN BE BROKEN INTO THREE FORMS; BRAHMA, THE CREATOR, VISHNU, THE PRESERVER AND SHIVA THE DESTROYER. -THE GOAL OF A HINDU’S LIFE IS TO ACHIEVE UNITY WITH BRAHMAN. -ACHIEVING UNITY WITH THE BRAHMAN OCCURS WHEN HINDUS FREE THEMSELVES FROM SELFISH DESIRES. -MOST HINDUS CANNOT ACHIEVE THIS UNION IN ONE LIFETIME.

Brahma The Creator

Brahma The Creator

Vishnu The Preserver

Vishnu The Preserver

Shiva The Destroyer

Shiva The Destroyer

2. MAIN BELIEFS (PG. 2) -HINDUS BELIEVE IN THE CONCEPT OF REINCARNATION. - DEFINITION

2. MAIN BELIEFS (PG. 2) -HINDUS BELIEVE IN THE CONCEPT OF REINCARNATION. - DEFINITION : THE REBIRTH OF THE SOUL IN A NEW BODY -HINDUS GET CLOSER TO THIS UNION BY BEING BORN INTO HIGHER AND HIGHER LEVELS OF EXISTENCE. -THROUGHOUT THEIR LIFETIME, HINDUS CAN BECOME CLOSER WITH BRAHMAN BY OBEYING THE LAWS OF KARMA. - DEFINITION : CONSISTS OF ALL THE DEEDS OF A PERSON’S LIFE THAT AFFECT HIS OR HER EXISTENCE IN THE NEXT LIFE. -BY LIVING THE RIGHT WAY, A PERSON WILL BE REBORN AT A HIGHER LEVEL. EVIL DOERS WILL BE REBORN AT A LOWER LEVEL. -HINDUS ALSO BELIEVE IN THE CONCEPT OF DHARMA -DEFINITION: THE MORAL AND RELIGIOUS DUTIES THAT ARE EXPECTED OF AN INDIVIDUAL

2. MAIN BELIEFS (Pg. 3) -OVER THOUSANDS OF YEARS, HINDU TEACHINGS WERE DEVELOPED AND

2. MAIN BELIEFS (Pg. 3) -OVER THOUSANDS OF YEARS, HINDU TEACHINGS WERE DEVELOPED AND RECORDED IN A NUMBER OF SACRED TEXTS. -THESE INCLUDE THE VEDAS, WHICH IS A COLLECTION OF PRAYERS AND SACRED VERSES AND THE UPANISHADS, WHICH ARE THE LESSONS BASED ON HINDU BELIEFS. - HINDUISM PROVIDES A GUIDE FOR CORRECT CONDUCT. IT ENCOURAGES VIRTUES SUCH AS TRUTH, RESPECT FOR ALL LIFE AND DETACHMENT FROM THE MATERIAL WORLD

Vedas

Vedas

Upanishads

Upanishads

3. SOCIETAL EFFECTS -A CASTE SYSTEM DEVELOPED FROM THE HINDU BELIEF. DEFINITION : SYSTEM

3. SOCIETAL EFFECTS -A CASTE SYSTEM DEVELOPED FROM THE HINDU BELIEF. DEFINITION : SYSTEM OF SOCIAL GROUPS INTO WHICH PEOPLE ARE BORN AND WHICH THEY CANNOT MOVE DURING THEIR LIFETIME. - OVERTIME, THE CASTE SYSTEM BECAME A VERY COMPLEX SYSTEM WITH THOUSANDS OF CASTES

Caste System

Caste System

VI. BUDDHISM 1. ORIGINS -BUDDHISM ALSO DEVELOPED IN INDIA BUT LATER SPREAD TO CHINA

VI. BUDDHISM 1. ORIGINS -BUDDHISM ALSO DEVELOPED IN INDIA BUT LATER SPREAD TO CHINA AND SOUTHEAST ASIA. -ITS FOUNDER, A PRINCE NAMED SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA, WAS BORN A HINDU IN THE 500 BCE -SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA LEFT HIS WEALTHY HOME TO SEARCH FOR THE MEANING OF HUMAN SUFFERING. -WHILE MEDITATING UNDER A BODHI TREE, HE FOUND THE ANSWER TO HIS QUESTION AND THEREFORE, BECAME THE ENLIGHTENED ONE, OR BUDDHA.

BODHI TREE

BODHI TREE

2. MAIN BELIEFS THE CENTRAL PHILOSOPHY OF BUDDHISM REVOLVES AROUNDTHE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS. (1)

2. MAIN BELIEFS THE CENTRAL PHILOSOPHY OF BUDDHISM REVOLVES AROUNDTHE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS. (1) ALL LIFE IS SUFFERING (2) SUFFERING IS CAUSED BY DESIRE FOR WORLDLY OBJECTS (3) THE WAY TO ELIMINATE SUFFERING IS TO ELIMINATE DESIRE (4) FOLLOWING THE EIGHTFOLD PATH WILL HELP PEOPLE OVERCOME DESIRE.

Four Noble Truths

Four Noble Truths

2. Main Beliefs (Pg. 2) -THE EIGHTFOLD PATH IS THE CODE OF CONDUCT FOR

2. Main Beliefs (Pg. 2) -THE EIGHTFOLD PATH IS THE CODE OF CONDUCT FOR BUDDHISTS. -THE EIGHT-SPOKED DHARMA WHEEL OR DHARMACHAKRA SYMBOLIZES THE EIGHTFOLD PATH (DHARMA = TRUTH/LAW, CHAKRA = WHEEL) RULES OF THE EIGHTFOLD PATH 1) 2) 3) 4) Right View Thought Speech Action 5) RIGHT LIVELIHOOD 6) RIGHT EFFORT 7) RIGHT MINDFULNESS 8) RIGHT CONCENTRATION

Eightfold Path Dharmachakra -Eight Spoke wheel

Eightfold Path Dharmachakra -Eight Spoke wheel

2. Main Beliefs (Pg 3. ) -THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF A BUDDHIST IS OBTAIN

2. Main Beliefs (Pg 3. ) -THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF A BUDDHIST IS OBTAIN NIRVANA DEFINITION : CONDITION OF WANTING NOTHING -THE UNION OF ONE’S SOUL WITH THE UNIVERSE AND RELEASE FROM THE CYCLE OF DEATH AND REBIRTH -IN ORDER TO OBTAIN THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, ONE MUST FOLLOW THEMIDDLE WAY DEFINITION - OFFERS PRACTICAL GUIDELINES THAT STRESS VIRTUOUS CONDUCT AND SELF-MODERATION -THE BUDDHA’S DISCIPLES COLLECTED BUDDHIST TEACHINGS INTO THEIR SACRED TEXTS CALLED THREE BASKETS OF WISDOM - DALAI LAMA- THE SPIRITUAL AND POLITICAL LEADER OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE ACCORDING TO TIBETAN BUDDHISM

Three Baskets of Wisdom

Three Baskets of Wisdom

Buddhist Monks

Buddhist Monks

Dalai Lama 1 st Dalai Lama 14 th Dalai Lama

Dalai Lama 1 st Dalai Lama 14 th Dalai Lama

3. COMPARE AND CONTRAST WITH HINDUISM -THE BUDDHA HAD SET OUT TO REFORM HINDUISM

3. COMPARE AND CONTRAST WITH HINDUISM -THE BUDDHA HAD SET OUT TO REFORM HINDUISM -BUDDHISM REFLECTS MANY HINDU BELIEFS -BUDDHISM ACCEPTS THE HINDU CONCEPTS OF KARMA, DHARMA AND REINCARNATION. -HOWEVER, BUDDHISM REJECTS THE BELIEFS OF POLYTHEISM AND THE CONCEPT OF THE CASTE SYSTEM. -BUDDHISTS BELIEVE THAT ALL PEOPLE , NO MATTER WHAT THEIR SOCIAL CLASS CAN OBTAIN NIRVANA

VII. CONFUCIANISM 1. ORIGINS - IN THE EARLY 500 S BCE AND THE LATE

VII. CONFUCIANISM 1. ORIGINS - IN THE EARLY 500 S BCE AND THE LATE 400 S BCE, CHINA WAS GOING THROUGH A TROUBLING TIME. THERE WERE MANY CIVIL WARS, ECONOMIC HARDSHIPS AND SOCIAL UNREST THAT DISRUPTED EVERYDAY LIFE IN CHINA. -OUT OF THE CHAOS, SEVERAL MAJOR CHINESE BELIEF SYSTEMS DEVELOPED INCLUDING CONFUCIANISM. - THESE PHILOSOPHIES SHARED THE COMMON PURPOSE OF RESTORING ORDER TO CHINA. -CONFUCIANISM IS A BELIEF SYSTEM (GUIDELINE ON HOW TO LIVE) BASED ON THE TEACHINGS OF CONFUCIUS. - CONFUCIUS, BORN IN 551 BCE, WAS CHINA’S MOST INFLUENTIAL THINKER.

2. MAIN BELIEFS -CONFUCIUS’S TEACHINGS ARE CONTAINED IN A COLLECTION KNOWN AS THE ANALECTS

2. MAIN BELIEFS -CONFUCIUS’S TEACHINGS ARE CONTAINED IN A COLLECTION KNOWN AS THE ANALECTS -HE TAUGHT PEOPLE THAT EVERYONE HAS CERTAIN RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES WITHIN THEIR GIVEN ROLE IN SOCIETY THAT THEY HAVE TO UPHOLD. -IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN SOCIAL ORDER, EVERY INDIVIDUAL IN SOCIETY MUST UPHOLD THEIR RESPONSIBILITIES. -CONFUCIUS TAUGHT THAT RESPECT FOR AUTHORITY WAS ESSENTIAL IN SOCIETY AND THE FAMILY. -CONFUCIANISM IS NOT A RELIGION; HOWEVER IT IS A GUIDE TO LIVE ONE’S LIFE. - THE GOAL OF CONFUCIANISM IS NOT THE INDIVIDUALS SOUL’S SALVATION BUT THE SALVATION OF SOCIETY.

The Analects

The Analects

Confucian Temple

Confucian Temple

3. FILIAL PIETY -ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT LESSONS TAUGHT BY CONFUCIUS WAS THE

3. FILIAL PIETY -ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT LESSONS TAUGHT BY CONFUCIUS WAS THE CONCEPT OF FILIAL PIETY. DEFINITION : A VIRTUE OF LOVE AND RESPECT FOR ONE'SPARENTSAND ANCESTORS. - MEANS TO TAKE CARE OF ONE'S PARENTS, NOT BE REBELLIOUS , SHOW LOVE, RESPECT AND SUPPORT, DISPLAY COURTESY, UPHOLD BONDS BETWEEN THE FAMILY, DISPLAY SORROW FOR OTHERS’ SICKNESS AND DEATH AND CARRY OUT SACRIFICESAFTER THEIR DEATH.

Filial Piety

Filial Piety

VIII. DAOISM (TAOISM) 1. Origins - ANOTHER CHINESE PHILOSOPHY THAT WAS FORMED IN RESPONSE

VIII. DAOISM (TAOISM) 1. Origins - ANOTHER CHINESE PHILOSOPHY THAT WAS FORMED IN RESPONSE TO THE CHAOTIC TIMES THAT FACED CHINA - FOUNDED BY LAOZI, A CHINESE PHILOSOPHER AROUND 500 BCE - THE TEACHINGS OF LAOZI ARE FOUND IN TWO BOOKS; THE WAY OF VIRTUE (DAODEJING) WRITTEN BY LAOZI AND A SECOND TEXTZHUANGZI ( ) CONTAINS FABLES AND BELIEFS BASED FROM THE WAY OF THE VIRTUE.

2. BELIEFS -STRESSED SIMPLICITY, MEDITATION, AND CLOSENESS WITH NATURE -GOAL OF LIFE IS TO

2. BELIEFS -STRESSED SIMPLICITY, MEDITATION, AND CLOSENESS WITH NATURE -GOAL OF LIFE IS TO ACHIEVE UNITY WITH THE TAO, OR UNIVERSAL SPIRIT -CHI IS THE FORCE THAT SETS THE WORLD AND EVERYTHING IN IT INTO MOTION. CHI IS ALSO THE FORCE THAT SUSTAINS ALL THINGS ONCE THEY ARE CREATED. -A PERSON REACHES HARMONY WITH NATURE THROUGH MEDITATION -THEY BELIEVE THAT THE BEST FORM OF GOVERNMENT IS THE ONE THAT GOVERNS THE LEAST - STRESS IMPROVING ONE’S LIFE THROUGH CONTEMPLATION - TAOIST EMPHASIS ON NATURE SHAPED CHINESE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

3. YIN AND YANG -TAOISTS BELIEVE IN A BALANCE BETWEEN THE YIN AND YANG.

3. YIN AND YANG -TAOISTS BELIEVE IN A BALANCE BETWEEN THE YIN AND YANG. -THE YIN STANDS FOR EARTH, DARKNESS AND REPRESENTS THE FEMALE. -THE YANG STANDS FOR HEAVEN, LIGHT AND REPRESENTS THE MALE. -THE PEACE AND WELL-BEING OF THE UNIVERSE DEPENDS ON HARMONY BETWEEN THE YIN AND YANG.

YIN AND YANG

YIN AND YANG

IX. LEGALISM -LEGALISM WAS THE THIRD MAJOR CHINESE PHILOSOPHY. -LEGALISTS BELIEVED THAT THE WAY

IX. LEGALISM -LEGALISM WAS THE THIRD MAJOR CHINESE PHILOSOPHY. -LEGALISTS BELIEVED THAT THE WAY TO CREATE A STABLE SOCIETY WAS THROUGH EFFICIENT GOVERNMENT. -THEY OPPOSED TAOISM (DAOISM) DUE TO ITS EMPHASIS ON MEDITATION AND SELF-GOVERNING BELIEFS -THEY BELIEVED THAT THE RULER SHOULD HAVE ABSOLUTE POWER TO MAKE THE SYSTEM WORK. - LEGALISM TAUGHT UNQUESTIONING OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY.

IX. LEGALISM (Pg 2. ) -THEY BELIEVED THAT PEOPLE ARE EASILY SWAYED GREED OR

IX. LEGALISM (Pg 2. ) -THEY BELIEVED THAT PEOPLE ARE EASILY SWAYED GREED OR FEAR AND THAT THE RULER KNEW HOW TO LOOK AFTER THE PUBLIC’S BEST INTEREST. -THEREFORE, THE RULER SHOULD MAKE ALL THE LAW AND ENFORCE THEM WITH REWARDS FOR OBEDIENCE AND SEVERE PUNISHMENTS FOR DISOBEDIENCE. -LEGALISTS HAD A LOW OPINION OF PEOPLE. THEY DID NOT BELIEVE PEOPLE WERE CAPABLE OF LOYALTY, HONESTY AND TRUST. -ONLY THE THREAT OF HARSH PUNISHMENT WOULD ENSURE ORDER IN SOCIETY

X. Shinto -THE TRADITIONAL JAPANESE RELIGION IS CALLED SHINTO, OR THE WAY OF THE

X. Shinto -THE TRADITIONAL JAPANESE RELIGION IS CALLED SHINTO, OR THE WAY OF THE GODS. -SHINTO IS CHARACTERIZED BY THE WORSHIP OF THE KAMI, OR SPIRITS FOUND IN ALL LIVING AND NON-LIVING THINGS. -KAMIWERE BELIEVED TO CONTROL THE POWERFUL FORCES OF NATURE. -FOLLOWERS OF SHINTO RESPECTED THE KAMI AND TRIED TO WIN THEIR FAVOR THROUGH PRAYER AND OFFERINGS. -SHINTO SHRINES WERE BUILT THROUGHOUT JAPAN IN PLACES OF UNUSUAL NATURAL BEAUTY OR INTEREST.