3 rd International Gang Specialist Training Conference Gang

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3 rd International Gang Specialist Training Conference: Gang College August, 2000 Juvenile Gangs in

3 rd International Gang Specialist Training Conference: Gang College August, 2000 Juvenile Gangs in Schools: Characteristics, Causes, and Possible Solutions Gordon A. Crews, Ph. D. , Chair Department of Criminal Justice Jacksonville State University Jacksonville, Alabama

Extent Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 2

Extent Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 2

Scope of the Gang Problem in American Schools • No National-level Data Collection Until

Scope of the Gang Problem in American Schools • No National-level Data Collection Until Very Recently • Still No Universally Agreed Upon Definition of the Term “Gang” • Differentiation Between “Hard-core”, “Fringe”, and “Wannabe” Membership Is Still Lacking • Political Pressure to Minimize or Maximize Local Gang Problems Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 3

Scope of the Gang Problem in American Schools • • Gang Problem Is Substantial

Scope of the Gang Problem in American Schools • • Gang Problem Is Substantial and Affects All Communities Now in More Jurisdictions Than Ever Before Emerging Most Recently in Rural and Small Areas Gang Demographics Are Changing As Gangs Emerge in New Areas • Criminal Activities of Gang Members Are Extensive and Varied • The Typical Gang Member’s Progression From “Wannabe” Status to Serious Crime Is Gradual Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 4

1997 National Youth Gang Survey • Major Findings: – 45% of Respondents Said Gang

1997 National Youth Gang Survey • Major Findings: – 45% of Respondents Said Gang Problem Staying About the Same – 35% Stated It Was Getting Worse – 20% Stated It Was Getting Better – Youth Gang Criminal Activity Still High • • Aggravated Assault & Larceny (28%) Motor Vehicle Theft (27%) Burglary (26%) Robbery (13%) Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 5

1997 National Youth Gang Survey • Comparison of 1996 to 1997: – Jurisdiction With

1997 National Youth Gang Survey • Comparison of 1996 to 1997: – Jurisdiction With Active Gangs Decreased Slightly (53% to 51%) – 100% of Cities With Population of 250, 000+ Reported Active Gangs – 31, 000 Youth Gangs and 846, 000 Gang Members in 1996 Down to 30, 500 Youth Gangs and 816, 000 Gang Members in 1997 – Gang Migration Reported Increased From 84% in 1996 to 89% in 1997 Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 6

Use of the Term “Wannabe” • Experts Say There Is No Such Thing As

Use of the Term “Wannabe” • Experts Say There Is No Such Thing As a “Wannabe” • “Wannabes” Are “Gonnabes” • Term Frequently Used by Officials Who Try to Point Out That There Are No “Pure” Gangs in Their Area Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 7

Use of the Term “Wannabe” • Labeling a Youth in This Fashion Is Often

Use of the Term “Wannabe” • Labeling a Youth in This Fashion Is Often Insulting, and Can Result in Increased Gang Involvement • Use Gives a False Sense of Security for a Community • If a Child “Thinks” He or She Is a Gang Member, They Are Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 8

Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 9

Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 9

Street Gangs at School In 1995: – Students Much More Likely to Report the

Street Gangs at School In 1995: – Students Much More Likely to Report the Presence of Gangs Than in 1989 (28. 4% Vs. 15. 3%) – Hispanic Students More Likely Than White or Black Students to Report Existence of Gangs (49. 5% Vs. 23. 0% Vs. 34. 7%) – Students From Lower-income Households More Likely to Report Presence of Gangs – Students in Central-cities More Likely to Report Presence of Gangs – Students in Public Schools Much More Likely to Report Presence of Gangs Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 10

Why Gangs in Schools? • Gangs Take Root in Schools Because: – The Needs

Why Gangs in Schools? • Gangs Take Root in Schools Because: – The Needs of Student Are Not Otherwise Being Met – They Often Provide Youth With a Sense of Family and Acceptance Otherwise Lacking in Their Lives – Gangs May Form Among Groups of Recent Immigrants As a Way of Maintaining a Strong Ethnic Identity Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 11

Why Gangs in Schools? • Four Factors Are Primary in the Formation of Juvenile

Why Gangs in Schools? • Four Factors Are Primary in the Formation of Juvenile Gangs: – Youth Experience a Sense of Alienation and Powerlessness – Membership Gives Youth a Sense of Belonging – Gangs Must Control Both Its Territory and Members – Recruitment of New Members and Expansion of Territory Are Essential Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 12

Why Recruit in Schools? • • New Drug Market Potential Members Safe and Neutral

Why Recruit in Schools? • • New Drug Market Potential Members Safe and Neutral Place Captive Audience Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 13

The Impact of Gangs on Schools • They Play a Significant Role in the

The Impact of Gangs on Schools • They Play a Significant Role in the Widespread Increase of Violence in the Schools • Their Mere Presence in School Can Increase Tensions There • Both Gang Members and Non-gang Members Are Arming Themselves With Increased Frequency Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 14

The Impact of Gangs on Schools • Schools Not Only Suffer From Gang-related Violence

The Impact of Gangs on Schools • Schools Not Only Suffer From Gang-related Violence "Spilling Over" From the Streets, but Are Themselves Rapidly Becoming Centers of Gang Activities, Functioning Particularly As Sites for Recruitment and Socializing • Gangs Can Spread Unexpectedly From School to School As Students Transfer From Gang-impacted Schools to Gang-free Schools Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 15

Gang Connections: Juvenile Correctional Facilities & Schools • As Number of Incarcerated Youth Increases,

Gang Connections: Juvenile Correctional Facilities & Schools • As Number of Incarcerated Youth Increases, the Number of Gangs Increases • Youth Involved in Gangs on the “Street” Bring It Into Facilities • Many Youth not Already Involved in Gangs, Often Seek It for Protection Once Inside • Many Who Experience the “Gang Lifestyle” Inside, Continue to Seek It Once They Are Released Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 16

Gang identifiers Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 17

Gang identifiers Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 17

GANG IDENTIFIERS Graffiti • Generally, Graffiti Reveals Some Specific Ethnic Traits – Hispanic Gangs

GANG IDENTIFIERS Graffiti • Generally, Graffiti Reveals Some Specific Ethnic Traits – Hispanic Gangs – Black Gangs – White Gangs • Gangs Mark Their Entire Neighborhood With Graffiti to Claim As Their Turf • Primary Gang Hangouts Are Usually Heavily Covered With Graffiti, Including the Street Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 18

“Learn to Read, or Learn to Bleed” Three Parts: – Top Third Set/gang Info

“Learn to Read, or Learn to Bleed” Three Parts: – Top Third Set/gang Info – Middle Third Message Being Sent – Bottom Third • Disrespect for Another Gang (Always Left to Right, Top to Bottom) Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 19

GANG IDENTIFIERS Remember The 4 R’s of Graffiti • Read • Report • Record

GANG IDENTIFIERS Remember The 4 R’s of Graffiti • Read • Report • Record • Remove Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 20

Translating Gang Communication • • 51 410 211 22 111 66 11: 06 SLOBS

Translating Gang Communication • • 51 410 211 22 111 66 11: 06 SLOBS Police Love or Ok Blood Killer Violation Aid & Assist Folk Fight Silent/secret Bloods Backwards • 306 • MOB • SUN • 666 • BOS Whole/complete Money Over Bitches Surrender Under None 6 Pointed Star Brothers in the Struggle Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois (Information collected from confiscated “Books of Knowledge”) 21

GANG IDENTIFIERS Tattoos • Always Read, Left to Right, Top to Bottom • Important

GANG IDENTIFIERS Tattoos • Always Read, Left to Right, Top to Bottom • Important As to the Side of Face or Body It Is on • Open “Tear” Tattoo – “Tears of Revenge” Needing to Give Payback Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 22

GANG IDENTIFIERS Tattoos • Colored in “Tear” Tattoo – Already Gave Payback • Best

GANG IDENTIFIERS Tattoos • Colored in “Tear” Tattoo – Already Gave Payback • Best Way to Identify Members • New Trend Is NOT to Have Any Tattoos in That They Can Be Used to Identify Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 23

GANG IDENTIFIERS Tattoos A Gang Members Tattoos Will Tell 3 Things About Them: –

GANG IDENTIFIERS Tattoos A Gang Members Tattoos Will Tell 3 Things About Them: – Who He Is? – What He Has Done? – Where He Has Been? Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 24

GANG IDENTIFIERS Tattoos Gang Members Use Tattoos for Several Reasons: – As Symbols of

GANG IDENTIFIERS Tattoos Gang Members Use Tattoos for Several Reasons: – As Symbols of Their Affiliations – As Symbols of What They Believe In, Support, or Like – Worn for Intimidation Others – As a “History” of Past Incarceration, Special Events, or People Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 25

GANG IDENTIFIERS Clothing Alone Is Not Enough to Identify a Gang Member, nor Are:

GANG IDENTIFIERS Clothing Alone Is Not Enough to Identify a Gang Member, nor Are: – Similar Dress Among a Group of Youth – Wearing Certain Jewelry – Wearing Particular Styles, Types and Colors of Clothing, Jewelry, Shoes and Other Items Clothing Is Merely One Indicator! Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 26

GANG IDENTIFIERS Clothing Boys Gang Related Clothing and Styles – White Oversized T-shirt, Middle

GANG IDENTIFIERS Clothing Boys Gang Related Clothing and Styles – White Oversized T-shirt, Middle Crease – Polo Type Knit Shirts (Oversized) Buttoned to the Top With Tail Out – Oversized Dickie, Ben Davis or Solos Pants – Pants Worn Low, or "Sagging" and Cuffed Inside or Dragging on the Ground – Baseball Caps Worn Backwards, Usually Black and Sometimes With of. Illinois the Gang 27 Gang College 2000, the August Initials 16 -19 ~ Chicago,

GANG IDENTIFIERS Clothing Boys Gang Related Clothing and Styles – A Predominance of Dark

GANG IDENTIFIERS Clothing Boys Gang Related Clothing and Styles – A Predominance of Dark or Dull Clothing, or Clothing of One Particular Color – Black Oversized Jackets, Sweatshirts, Jerseys, Etc. – Black Stretch Belt With Chrome or Silver Gang Initial Belt Buckle – Clothing a Mixture of Gang Colors, Black and Silver or White Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 28

GANG IDENTIFIERS Clothing Girls Gang Related Clothing and Styles – Exaggerated Use of Hair

GANG IDENTIFIERS Clothing Girls Gang Related Clothing and Styles – Exaggerated Use of Hair Mousse, Gel or Oil – Black or Dark Clothing and Shoes – Black Oversized Jackets, Sweatshirts, Athletic Football Jerseys, Etc. – Oversized Shirts Worn Outside of the Pants – Dark Jackets With Lettering (Cursive or Old English Style) Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 29

GANG IDENTIFIERS Clothing Girls Gang Related Clothing and Styles – Baggy, Long Pants Dragging

GANG IDENTIFIERS Clothing Girls Gang Related Clothing and Styles – Baggy, Long Pants Dragging on the Ground – Heavy Make-up, Dark Excessive Eye Shadow, Shaved Eyebrows, Dark Lipstick, Dark Fingernail Polish – Tank Tops or Revealing Blouses – Stretch Belts With Initial on Belt Buckle – Overalls, Unfastened Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 30

Sportswear Identifiers Chicago Bulls Bloods Usually Live Longer Sucker Packers Pimping Ass Crip Killers

Sportswear Identifiers Chicago Bulls Bloods Usually Live Longer Sucker Packers Pimping Ass Crip Killers Ever Rule the Streets Raiders Ruthless Ass Insane Disciples Ever Rule the Streets Fila Folks Always in Love Reebok Red: Bloods, Blue: Crips Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 31

Sportswear Identifiers British Knights Blood Killers Chicago White Sox Xing Out Slobs K-Swiss Killin’

Sportswear Identifiers British Knights Blood Killers Chicago White Sox Xing Out Slobs K-Swiss Killin’ Slobs When I See Slobs Converse Crips Flight Forever Living in Gangster Hoover Town Georgetown Hoyas Gang. Ass College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois Hoover on Your Slobs 32

"Books of Knowledge" • The "Gang Bible" • Can Only Be Hand Written •

"Books of Knowledge" • The "Gang Bible" • Can Only Be Hand Written • Collection of All the Gang’s History, Rules, Regulations, Activities, Dates • Used in Training New Recruits Who Must Copy All of It Into Their Own “Book of Knowledge” • Great Source of Intelligence on What Is Going on With a Particular Youth or a Local Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 33

Recruitment • Go After Those Who Have No Family • Never Seen Love, Discipline

Recruitment • Go After Those Who Have No Family • Never Seen Love, Discipline or Brotherhood • Those Able to "Learn" • Those Who Need Protection • Neighborhoods • Families • Schools • Streets Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 34

Initiation "A Rite or Ceremony With Which One Is Made a Member of a

Initiation "A Rite or Ceremony With Which One Is Made a Member of a Sect or Society. " • Joining Means "Blood In - Blood Out. " • "Beat In" or "Jump In“ • Blessed in • Armed Robbery Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 35

Initiation • Drive-by Shooting • Assault on an Innocent Victim • Rape an Innocent

Initiation • Drive-by Shooting • Assault on an Innocent Victim • Rape an Innocent Victim • "Sex In" • Murder Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 36

Female Gang Members Gang Violence by Girls Is on the Rise – They Dress,

Female Gang Members Gang Violence by Girls Is on the Rise – They Dress, Fight and Commit Crimes Very Much Like Male – Official Figures Show a Disturbing Rise in Teenage Girls Committing Extortions, Robberies and Other Crimes – Police Sometimes Mistake Them for Boys Because of Their "Short Hair, Men's Shirt, Trousers and Doc Martens Shoes" Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 37

Female Gang Members Gang Violence by Girls Is on the Rise – When They

Female Gang Members Gang Violence by Girls Is on the Rise – When They Fight, It Is With a Vengeance – Gangs Today Give Themselves "Cutesy" Names – They Operate in Gangs With 15 - 20 Members – Girl Gangs Often Pick on Neighbors or Schoolmates – Most Girls Are From Homes With Family Abuse or Marital Problems Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 38

New groups Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 39

New groups Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 39

“New” Youth Groups Goth Vampires Wiccan, Witches, Warlocks, & Magicians Satanists Gang College 2000,

“New” Youth Groups Goth Vampires Wiccan, Witches, Warlocks, & Magicians Satanists Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 40

Vampires BELIEF SYSTEM "Life Force" Drinking Blood Creating "Bonds" Vampirism Vs. Religion “Hollywood” Stereotypes

Vampires BELIEF SYSTEM "Life Force" Drinking Blood Creating "Bonds" Vampirism Vs. Religion “Hollywood” Stereotypes Not Immortal

Goth • Philosophy: embrace the dark, the weird, the bloody, & the morbid •

Goth • Philosophy: embrace the dark, the weird, the bloody, & the morbid • Generally 4 types: – just into look, being different, and into music – into witchcraft, Satanism, Paganism, or fascinated with death – pretend or role-play as Vampires – literally believing that they are Vampires Characteristics: most very intelligent, well-read, independent, creative, and very articulate Appearance: nwhite make-up or very pale nblack or purple hair nblack clothes, lipstick, & fingernails nsilver jewelry n“Gothic clothing” Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 42

Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 43

Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 43

The Nine Satanic Statements from The Satanic Bible, © 1969 by Anton Szandor La.

The Nine Satanic Statements from The Satanic Bible, © 1969 by Anton Szandor La. Vey 1. Satan Represents Indulgence Instead of Abstinence! 2. Satan Represents Vital Existence Instead of Spiritual Pipe Dreams! 3. Satan Represents Undefiled Wisdom Instead of Hypocritical Self-deceit! 4. Satan Represents Kindness to Those Who Deserve It Instead of Love Wasted on Ingrates! 5. Satan Represents Vengeance Instead of Turning the Other Cheek! Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 44

The Nine Satanic Statements from The Satanic Bible, © 1969 by Anton Szandor La.

The Nine Satanic Statements from The Satanic Bible, © 1969 by Anton Szandor La. Vey 6. Satan Represents Responsibility to the Responsible Instead of Concern for Psychic Vampires! 7. Satan Represents Man As Just Another Animal, Sometimes Better, More Often Worse Than Those That Walk on Allfours, Who, Because of His "Divine Spiritual and Intellectual Development, " Has Become the Most Vicious Animal of All! 8. Satan Represents All of the So-called Sins, As They All Lead to Physical, Mental, or Emotional Gratification! 9. Satan Has Been the Best Friend the Church Has Ever Had, As He Has Kept It in Business All These Years! Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 45

What is Gothic? • Basic definition – Gothic – of or pertaining to that

What is Gothic? • Basic definition – Gothic – of or pertaining to that which emphasizes the grotesque, mysterious, and desolate • History of the movement – First "gothic" movement emerged in the UK as a splinter from the punk movement – The late 1980 s and early 1990 s is when the US "Goth" movement grew – By the late 1990 s, cultural quirks had filtered in; I. E. , Supernatural, occult, magick – Today: an explosion in the number of people referring to themselves as "gothic" Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 46

Are Gothics a Gang? • No Evidence of Typical “Gang Type” Activities • Have

Are Gothics a Gang? • No Evidence of Typical “Gang Type” Activities • Have Been Labeled a Gang Because of Some Criminal Activity • Criminal Activity Described by the Media Includes Violence and Heavy Drug Use • Most "Goth" Crime Stems From Individual's Choice, Not Through Gang-like Leadership Structure That Promotes It Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 47

Are Gothics, Vampires, and Occultist, Gangs? • There Is No Initiation to Become a

Are Gothics, Vampires, and Occultist, Gangs? • There Is No Initiation to Become a "Gothic" • Wearing All Black Is a Preference, Not a Requirement • Violence Is Usually Caused by Some Mental Instability, Not by That Person Being "Gothic" Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 48

Are These Involvements a Bad Influence? • Majority of Teenagers Move on to Something

Are These Involvements a Bad Influence? • Majority of Teenagers Move on to Something Else Within a Few Years • Most Find It Appealing Initially to Rebel and Gain Social Belonging • Those Likely to Remain Involved Find Some Comfort or Answer to Personal Problems • Participants Are Faced With the Same Basic Decisions Regarding Drugs, Drinking, Smoking and Sex • Actually an Outlet for Juvenile Depression Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 49

WHAT ATTRACTS SOME YOUTH TO ALTERNATIVE BELIEF SYSTEMS & PRACTICES • • • Rebellion

WHAT ATTRACTS SOME YOUTH TO ALTERNATIVE BELIEF SYSTEMS & PRACTICES • • • Rebellion Peer Pressure Sense of Belonging Sense of Status or Power Perceived Freedom Life’s Pressure Curiosity/mystery “Fear Addiction” Commercialization of Music and Literature With Satanic/Occult Themes Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 50

Migration Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 51

Migration Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 51

Street Gang Migration: How Big a Threat? • Society Extremely Concerned With Gang Migration

Street Gang Migration: How Big a Threat? • Society Extremely Concerned With Gang Migration and Drug Market Expansions • Fears “Reportedly” Confirmed by Law Enforcement and Governmental Reports • Most “Evidence” Cited Is Anecdotal at Best • Research Continues to Find the Impact of Gang Migration As Far Less Than Has Been Believed Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 52

Youth Gang Migration • Often Mentioned As Primary Factor in Gangs Appearing in Small

Youth Gang Migration • Often Mentioned As Primary Factor in Gangs Appearing in Small Cities/rural Counties • Task Force & Governmental Reports at Odds With Empirically Based Studies • Recent Studies Conclude That “Migrant” Gang Members Have Less of an Impact on the Proliferation of Gangs Than Previously Believed Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 53

Common Perceptions of Gang Migration • Gang Proliferation Is Directly Related to Gang Migration

Common Perceptions of Gang Migration • Gang Proliferation Is Directly Related to Gang Migration • Gang Migration Is Directly Related in the Increase in Violence by Existing Gangs • Gang Migration Is Directly Related to the Increase of Gangs in Rural Areas • Gangs Spread Primarily Through Family Migration Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 54

Reasons for Gang Migration 1992 National Youth Gang Survey University of Southern California •

Reasons for Gang Migration 1992 National Youth Gang Survey University of Southern California • Social Factors (39%) – Moving With Families, Job Opp. , & Joining Relatives • • • To Visit Friends and Family (18%) Establishing Drug Markets (20%) Avoiding Police Crackdowns (8%) Getting Away From Gang Life (11%) Other Reasons (4%) Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 55

Reasons for Gang Migration 1997 National Youth Gang Survey Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999

Reasons for Gang Migration 1997 National Youth Gang Survey Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report • Social Factors (70%) – Moving With Families, Job Opp. , & Joining Relatives • • • Establishing Drug Markets (15%) Avoiding Police Crackdowns (14%) Other Illegal Ventures (12%) Getting Away From Gang Life (9%) Other Reasons (6%) Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 56

Impact of Youth Gang Migration • Obviously Some Migration Does Occur, but a Small

Impact of Youth Gang Migration • Obviously Some Migration Does Occur, but a Small Percentage (23% Gang Member Migration) • Actually Plays a Very Minor Role in Overall Growth • Most Movement Can Be Attributed to Normal Residential Relocations • Most Police/Communities Still Regard Their Local Gang Problem As “Home Grown” Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 57

What Is the Research Showing? • Research Findings in Conflict With Popular Media and

What Is the Research Showing? • Research Findings in Conflict With Popular Media and Governmental Reports • Most Empirical Studies Find the Following: – Gang Migration Only Minimally Affects Gang Proliferation – Indigenous Gangs Are Most Often Found to Be Primary Cause of Gang Problems – Most Gangs Have No Outside Connections With National Groups – Most Migrant Gang Members Only Have “Slight” Connections to Original Gangs – No Convincing Evidence That Metropolitan Gangs Are Branching Out to Gang New Markets – Most Gangs Originate From Neighborhood Conflicts Influenced by Popular Culture Rather Than Big City 58 Connections Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois

What are the Gang Experts saying? • Most Gangs Do Not Have the Skills

What are the Gang Experts saying? • Most Gangs Do Not Have the Skills or Knowledge to Move to Other Communities • Most Gang Members Feel Like a Fish Out of Water in a New Area • Just Because a Gang “Claims” Affiliation With a National Group Does Not Mean They Actually Are Connected • There Is a Big Difference Between Name Association and Structural Links • Female Gang Member Migration Is Almost Unheard of • Gang Migration Is Not a Major Culprit in the Current Problems Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 59

Member Vs. Concept Migration Inner City/ Large Cities Small Cities/Rural Counties Gang College 2000,

Member Vs. Concept Migration Inner City/ Large Cities Small Cities/Rural Counties Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 60

Member Vs. Concept Migration Inner City/ Large Cities Characteristics • Black/Hispanic • Male •

Member Vs. Concept Migration Inner City/ Large Cities Characteristics • Black/Hispanic • Male • Crips/Bloods • Involvement? • $$$$ • Drugs • Poverty/SES • Street Crime Small Cities/Rural Counties Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 61

Member Vs. Concept Migration Inner City/ Large Cities Characteristics • Black/Hispanic • Male •

Member Vs. Concept Migration Inner City/ Large Cities Characteristics • Black/Hispanic • Male • Crips/Bloods • Involvement? • $$$$ • Drugs • Poverty/SES • Street Crime Filtering Process üIndividuals üCommunity üExperience üResources üCustoms üNorms üHistory üGeography üTargets Small Cities/Rural Counties Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 62

Member Vs. Concept Migration Inner City/ Large Cities Characteristics • Black/Hispanic • Male •

Member Vs. Concept Migration Inner City/ Large Cities Characteristics • Black/Hispanic • Male • Crips/Bloods • Involvement? • $$$$ • Drugs • Poverty/SES • Street Crime Filtering Process üIndividuals üCommunity üExperience üResources üCustoms üNorms üHistory üGeography üTargets Small Cities/Rural Counties Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 63

Member Vs. Concept Migration Inner City/ Large Cities Characteristics • Black/Hispanic • Male •

Member Vs. Concept Migration Inner City/ Large Cities Characteristics • Black/Hispanic • Male • Crips/Bloods • Involvement? • $$$$ • Drugs • Poverty/SES • Street Crime Filtering Process üIndividuals üCommunity üExperience üResources üCustoms üNorms üHistory üGeography üTargets Characteristics • White • Female • Goth/Vampires • Involvement? • Boredom • Alienation • Mimic • Occult/Unusual Small Cities/Rural Counties Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 64

Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 65

Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 65

CONNECTIONS?

CONNECTIONS?

WHY KIDS BECOME INVOLVED Adolescence Biological & Psychological Changes Emotional & Social Stress Identity

WHY KIDS BECOME INVOLVED Adolescence Biological & Psychological Changes Emotional & Social Stress Identity Work Adolescent Egocentrism Imaginary Audience Invincibility Myth

WHY KIDS BECOME INVOLVED Adolescence Biological & Psychological Changes Emotional & Social Stress Identity

WHY KIDS BECOME INVOLVED Adolescence Biological & Psychological Changes Emotional & Social Stress Identity Work Adolescent Egocentrism Imaginary Audience Invincibility Myth

WHY KIDS BECOME INVOLVED Adolescence Root Causes Biological & Psychological Changes Emotional & Social

WHY KIDS BECOME INVOLVED Adolescence Root Causes Biological & Psychological Changes Emotional & Social Stress Identity Work Adolescent Egocentrism Imaginary Audience Invincibility Myth Poor Social Conditions Boredom Alienation Pessimism Powerlessness Poverty Low Self-Esteem Abuse Hopelessness

WHY KIDS BECOME INVOLVED Adolescence Root Causes Biological & Psychological Changes Emotional & Social

WHY KIDS BECOME INVOLVED Adolescence Root Causes Biological & Psychological Changes Emotional & Social Stress Identity Work Adolescent Egocentrism Imaginary Audience Invincibility Myth Poor Social Conditions Boredom Alienation Pessimism Powerlessness Poverty Low Self-Esteem Abuse Hopelessness

WHY KIDS BECOME INVOLVED Adolescence Root Causes Biological & Psychological Changes Emotional & Social

WHY KIDS BECOME INVOLVED Adolescence Root Causes Biological & Psychological Changes Emotional & Social Stress Identity Work Adolescent Egocentrism Imaginary Audience Invincibility Myth Poor Social Conditions Boredom Alienation Pessimism Powerlessness Poverty Low Self-Esteem Abuse Hopelessness

WHY KIDS BECOME INVOLVED Options Adolescence Root Causes Biological & Psychological Changes Emotional &

WHY KIDS BECOME INVOLVED Options Adolescence Root Causes Biological & Psychological Changes Emotional & Social Stress Identity Work Adolescent Egocentrism Imaginary Audience Invincibility Myth Poor Social Conditions Boredom Alienation Pessimism Powerlessness Poverty Low Self-Esteem Abuse Hopelessness Gangs Drugs Sex Crime Suicide Runaway Goth, Occult, or Satanism Power, Identity, Shock Value, Belonging, Different, Cope

WHY BECOME INVOLVED? Occult Name Sex Age Belief System Why Involved? Lady Malevolence CHRIS

WHY BECOME INVOLVED? Occult Name Sex Age Belief System Why Involved? Lady Malevolence CHRIS H Ajah D’Jinn Catea Alistair Jessica C. Katarina Katt Mesosphere Sue Shepke Damien Demodus Roky. Girl. X Female Male Female Female Male Female 15 17 17 17 15 17 16 15 17 18 Druidism/Magick Druidism/Paganism Occultist Vampire Satanist Goth Atheist/enjoys ancient practices Enjoys history & theology Believes in the power of Magick Believes in immortality & power Believes born a Vampire/power Born one, enjoys power Misunderstood life, found group Most friends involved Enjoys lifestyle & friends Grew into it/groups felt natural Survey Results, Spring 2000 - Gordon A. Crews, Ph. D.

WHY BECOME INVOLVED? Survey Trends Revealed: • Most Enjoy the “Power” Over Others •

WHY BECOME INVOLVED? Survey Trends Revealed: • Most Enjoy the “Power” Over Others • Most Believe That Are “Superior” to Others • Most Enjoy Togetherness With Groups • Many State They Found a Group Where They “Fit In” Survey Results, Spring 2000 - Gordon A. Crews, Ph. D.

Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 75

Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 75

What are the Shadows that we chase? (copyright by Gordon Arthur Crews, Ph. D.

What are the Shadows that we chase? (copyright by Gordon Arthur Crews, Ph. D. )

What Are the “Root” Causes? Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois

What Are the “Root” Causes? Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 77

How the Process Often Works Part 1: Development of Behavior Characteristics of Adolescence +

How the Process Often Works Part 1: Development of Behavior Characteristics of Adolescence + Root Causes of Juvenile Delinquency Influences of External Culture Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 78

How the Process Often Works Part 1: Development of Behavior Part 2: Resulting Behavior

How the Process Often Works Part 1: Development of Behavior Part 2: Resulting Behavior Characteristics of Adolescence + Root Causes of Juvenile Delinquency Many Avenues for Negative Behavior Delinquent Behavior Influences of External Culture Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 79

How the Process Often Works Part 1: Development of Behavior Part 2: Resulting Behavior

How the Process Often Works Part 1: Development of Behavior Part 2: Resulting Behavior Part 3: Reaction to Behavior is Observed Characteristics of Adolescence + Root Causes of Juvenile Delinquency Many Avenues for Negative Behavior REACTION Root Causes Delinquent Behavior Influences of External Culture Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 80

How the Process Often Works Part 1: Development of Behavior Part 2: Resulting Behavior

How the Process Often Works Part 1: Development of Behavior Part 2: Resulting Behavior Part 3: Reaction to Behavior is Observed Characteristics of Adolescence + Root Causes of Juvenile Delinquency Many Avenues for Negative Behavior REACTION Root Causes Delinquent Behavior Influences of External Culture Alienation of Children Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois Root Causes Continue 81

Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 82

Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 82

Extent of Alternative Lifestyles, Beliefs & Practices, and Juvenile Violence • 2000 - “Netlore”

Extent of Alternative Lifestyles, Beliefs & Practices, and Juvenile Violence • 2000 - “Netlore” and Hysteria/panic • New Members Are Initiated Into Gangs by Killing Drivers of Cars Who Flash Their Highlights at Them. • Gang Members Are Spreading a Deadly Mixture of LSD and Strychnine on Payphone Buttons. • Gang Members Lie in Wait Under Victims’ Cars, Then Render Them Helpless by Slashing Their Ankles. • A Lone Driver Spots a “Body” Lying on the Road but Takes a Detour Around It. She Later Discovers She Made the Right Choice - She’s Driven Over the 4 Gang Members Lying in Wait for Her. Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 83

Extent of Alternative Lifestyles, Beliefs & Practices, and Juvenile Violence • April 20, 1999

Extent of Alternative Lifestyles, Beliefs & Practices, and Juvenile Violence • April 20, 1999 - “Trench Coat Mafia” – – – – Columbine High School (Littleton, Colo. ) Eric Harris (18) & Dylan Klebold (17) 1 Teacher & 12 Students Killed, 23 Wounded Teased by “Jocks”, Called “Faggots” Into Marilyn Manson, Video Games: Doom & Quake Hero: Adolf Hitler, Reportedly Into Nazi Occultism Targeted Athletes & Minorities

Extent of Alternative Lifestyles, Beliefs & Practices, and Juvenile Violence • 1998 - Burlington,

Extent of Alternative Lifestyles, Beliefs & Practices, and Juvenile Violence • 1998 - Burlington, Wisconsin “Revenge of the Goths” – 5 “Goth” Juveniles (15 to 16) Planned to Kill 15 -20 People – Including Disliked Teachers & Classmates, Principal, and the “Cowboys” – Caught Planning to Steal Guns, Attack School, and Listing Those to Kill – All Described As “Outcasts” • 1998 - Fort Worth, Texas “Manson Fan” – Jay F. Howell (17) Stabbed 14 Year Old Girl in the Neck at a “Satanic” Alter He Had Built in His Back Yard – Was Watching a Marilyn Manson Video Right Before Assault – Brought on “Marilyn Manson Awareness Training” Across Texas Telling Schools and Police to Look at Manson Fans and Goths As “Gang Members”

Extent of Alternative Lifestyles, Beliefs & Practices, and Juvenile Violence • 1998 - Denver,

Extent of Alternative Lifestyles, Beliefs & Practices, and Juvenile Violence • 1998 - Denver, Colorado “Goths” – Two Goth Juveniles (Boyfriend - 14 & Girlfriend -15) Stabbed Boy’s Father Attempting to Kill Him – They Were Trying to Steal His Money and Car and Runaway to California – Police Found “Hate” Graffiti, Satanic Symbols, and Marilyn Manson, Carved Into Tables in Boy’s Room • 1997 - Pearl, Mississippi “Satanists” – Luke Woodham Killed 2 Students and Wounded 7 Others – Described As “Outcasts” – Involved in Satanic Group “The Kroth” – Shot Initial 2 and Then Fired Randomly

Extent of Alternative Lifestyles, Beliefs & Practices, and Juvenile Violence • 1996 - Tavares,

Extent of Alternative Lifestyles, Beliefs & Practices, and Juvenile Violence • 1996 - Tavares, Florida “Vampires” – Rod Ferrell (17) Sentenced to Die for Beating Deaths of Florida Couple – Leader of Vampire Coven From Murry, Kentucky – Drank Blood, Sex Rites, Animal-mutilation Rituals – November of 1996 on a Trip to Florida, Inducted Heather Wendorf (15) and Talked the Group Into Killing Her Parents – All Were Described As “Outcasts”

Criminal Activity Associated with "Alternative" Beliefs • Vandalism • Trespassing • Desecration of &

Criminal Activity Associated with "Alternative" Beliefs • Vandalism • Trespassing • Desecration of & Thefts From Churches & Cemeteries • Teenage Gangs • Animal Mutilations • Teen Suicide • • Child Abuse Kidnapping Murder Human Sacrifice

Why Kids Cut Themselves • To Get Attention • To Avoid Suicide by Substituting

Why Kids Cut Themselves • To Get Attention • To Avoid Suicide by Substituting a Physical Pain for a Nebulous Inner Pain They Can't Control • To Acquire a Sense of Focus • Boredom and Experimentation Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 89

BLOOD LETTING and BLOOD DRINKING • Why They Do It: – – Vampiric Imitation

BLOOD LETTING and BLOOD DRINKING • Why They Do It: – – Vampiric Imitation Curiosity and Experimentation Erotic Experience Extremists: Killers, Religious Cults, Fanatics • Different From Cutting Oneself: – Blood Drinking: the Focus Is More on the Blood Cutting Oneself: the Focus Is More on the Pain – Blood Drinking: Solitary, Two People or Groups Cutting Oneself: Almost Always Solitary Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 90

Solutions Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 91

Solutions Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 91

Policy Implications • Developed Joint Efforts With Other Agencies • Develop Innovative Ideas •

Policy Implications • Developed Joint Efforts With Other Agencies • Develop Innovative Ideas • Migration Is NOT the Cause of Most Local Gang Problems – Identify Other Causes • Some Migration Does Exist, but Few Police Departments Have Policies or Coherent Strategies in Place • Different Types of Migrants Require Different Responses • The Need for Developing a National File of Gang Members Is Not Supported by Research Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 92

THINGS TO CONSIDER • • Self-fulfilling prophecy Symbols of a new counterculture Careful dissemination

THINGS TO CONSIDER • • Self-fulfilling prophecy Symbols of a new counterculture Careful dissemination of information What does involvement actually reveal?

Future Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 94

Future Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 94

CURRENT TRENDS AND FUTURE PROJECTIONS • • Younger Gang Members Senseless Gang-related Violence Racial

CURRENT TRENDS AND FUTURE PROJECTIONS • • Younger Gang Members Senseless Gang-related Violence Racial Polarization Influence of Prison Gangs Over Existing Street Gangs Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 95

CURRENT TRENDS AND FUTURE PROJECTIONS • Release of Currently Incarcerated Gang Members • Sophistication

CURRENT TRENDS AND FUTURE PROJECTIONS • Release of Currently Incarcerated Gang Members • Sophistication of Gangs, With Some Evolving Into Organized Crime Groups • Migration of Gangs to Small Jurisdictions With Less Enforcement and Awareness Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 96

CURRENT TRENDS AND FUTURE PROJECTIONS • Political Influence by Gangs • Lings Between Gangs

CURRENT TRENDS AND FUTURE PROJECTIONS • Political Influence by Gangs • Lings Between Gangs and Major Drug Trafficking Organizations • Societal Ignorance or Apathy Toward Gangs Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 97

Any Questions? Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 98

Any Questions? Gang College 2000, August 16 -19 ~ Chicago, Illinois 98

Contact Information for Author Gordon A. Crews, Ph. D. Professor of Criminal Justice &

Contact Information for Author Gordon A. Crews, Ph. D. Professor of Criminal Justice & Criminology Department of Criminal Justice & Criminology Marshall University Huntington, West Virginia 25755 [email protected] edu/304. 696. 3083