2016 by Pearson Education Inc Chapter 13 Ideological

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© 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

© 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Ideological Reasoning THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education,

Chapter 13 Ideological Reasoning THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Learning Outcomes • Explain ideological reasoning and its implications for beliefs and actions •

Learning Outcomes • Explain ideological reasoning and its implications for beliefs and actions • Apply correctly the criteria for the evaluation of ideological reasoning • Describe the uses, benefits, and risks of ideological reasoning THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter Opening Video THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter Opening Video THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Recognizing Ideological Reasoning • Examples of ideological reasoning • Features of ideological reasoning THINK

Recognizing Ideological Reasoning • Examples of ideological reasoning • Features of ideological reasoning THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Examples of Ideological Reasoning • Immigration policy – Person illegally entering the country is

Examples of Ideological Reasoning • Immigration policy – Person illegally entering the country is breaking the law and is a criminal • I support the amendment that requires incarceration and deportation of all illegal immigrants – Government policies and laws that destroy the family unit are bad • I oppose the amendment which would separate a family apart by deporting a parent or child THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Examples of Ideological Reasoning • Human nature – People are fundamentally good and it

Examples of Ideological Reasoning • Human nature – People are fundamentally good and it is wrong to take away people’s freedom • I support individuals who maximize individual liberties – People are fundamentally bad • Additional individual liberty will lead to greater societal disintegration THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Ideological Reasoning THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Ideological Reasoning THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Features of Ideological Reasoning • Deductive in character – Conclusions of arguments are presented

Features of Ideological Reasoning • Deductive in character – Conclusions of arguments are presented as certainties – Ideologues seek facts that support their points of view – Arguments move from general ideas to specific applications THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Features of Ideological Reasoning • Ideological premises are axiomatic – Assumptions are community’s or

Features of Ideological Reasoning • Ideological premises are axiomatic – Assumptions are community’s or individual’s beliefs and core values – Ideas or beliefs used to initiate arguments represent: • Axioms that contribute other ideas THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Features of Ideological Reasoning • Argument maker takes the ideological absolutes on faith –

Features of Ideological Reasoning • Argument maker takes the ideological absolutes on faith – Ideological thinkers: • Try to bend science to fit preconceptions • Regard absolutes as immune from disconfirmation THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Evaluating Ideological Reasoning • Are the ideological premises true? • Logical strength and ideological

Evaluating Ideological Reasoning • Are the ideological premises true? • Logical strength and ideological belief systems • Relevancy, non-circularity, and ideological reasoning THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Applying the Test of Truthfulness of the Premises THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS ©

Applying the Test of Truthfulness of the Premises THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Are the Ideological Premises True? • Test involves considering all premises • Possibilities in

Are the Ideological Premises True? • Test involves considering all premises • Possibilities in applying the Test of the Truthfulness of the Premises – Speaker does not back a given premise – Argument maker is the source of the premise – Cite a source trusted by the speaker – Argument maker’s reason for the truthfulness of premise THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Logical Strength and Ideological Belief Systems • Ideological arguments are product of deductive reasoning

Logical Strength and Ideological Belief Systems • Ideological arguments are product of deductive reasoning – Exhibit reasonable levels of logical strength • Ideological belief structures contain internal contradictions – Resolved by debate and examination of documents THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Relevancy, Non-circularity, and Ideological Reasoning • Test of Relevancy yields unambiguously positive results •

Relevancy, Non-circularity, and Ideological Reasoning • Test of Relevancy yields unambiguously positive results • Non-circularity produces consternation THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Benefits of Ideological Reasoning • Ideologies define and shape communities – Provide individuals a

Benefits of Ideological Reasoning • Ideologies define and shape communities – Provide individuals a strong sense of identity • Ideological convictions enable to escape the suffocating malaise of relativism • Ideological reasoning offers an efficient way of addressing novel questions THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Discussion Questions • Kate Kelly faced excommunication for publically advocating gender equality within the

Discussion Questions • Kate Kelly faced excommunication for publically advocating gender equality within the practice of Mormonism – A spokeswoman for the Church said no person can “dictate to God what is right for his Church” • Can a person change their core religious, national or political identity? • Can they become someone other than who they were born and raised to be? THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Risks of Ideological Reasoning • Ideological reasoning is powerfully persuasive • Ideological belief structures

Risks of Ideological Reasoning • Ideological reasoning is powerfully persuasive • Ideological belief structures are socially normative • Ideological reasoning constrains and empowers THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Sketchnote Video THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Sketchnote Video THINK CRITICALLY, FACIONE & GITTENS © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.