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20 th Century Timelines Century of the Globe (1900 -2000) http: //www. cnn. com/SPECIALS/1999/millenniu m/learning/timelines/ https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=n_hv. V 0 rulm w
One Hundred Years Ago Bob Hope was born (May 1903) The Wright Brothers Flew (Dec, 1903) Average Life Expectancy was 47 14% of homes had a bathtub 8% of homes had a telephone A three minute call from Denver to New York cost 11 dollars There were 8, 000 cars in the North America and only 144 miles of paved roads The maximum speed in most cities was 10 miles per hour
One hundred Years Ago Average pay was 300 dollars a year The highest paid professional was a veterinarian at $4000 dollars a year 95% of all births took place at home Sugar cost 4 cents a pound. Eggs were 14 cents a dozen. Coffee was 15 cents a pound Most women only washed their hair once a month and used borax or eggs yolks to shampoo.
One hundred Years Ago Canada passes a law prohibiting poor people from entering the country for any reason. The five leading causes or death in the US were 1. Pneumonia, 2. Tuberculosis 3. Diarrhea, 4. Heart disease and 5. Stroke The population of Las Vegas, Nevada was 30. Canned beer and iced tea had not been invented. There were no Mother’s or Father’s Day One in ten adults could not read or write. Only 6% of All Americas had graduated from high school.
One hundred Years Ago Marijuana, heroin, and morphine were all available over the counter at corner drugstores. According to one pharmacists, “Heroin clears the complexion, gives buoyancy to the mind, regulates the stomach and bowels, and is, in fact, a perfect guardian of health. ” Eighteen percent of households in the US had a least one full-time servant or domestic. There were only 230 reported murders a year in the entire US. Worldwide cities in the industrial north claimed the top 10 largest cities in the world. London was the largest at 6. 5 million. Population of the world is 1. 5 billion.
The Larger Twentieth-Century World Context • The 20 th century revealed a world dominated by Western European Imperial interests. • Events of World War I, the depression, and World War II told a long story of how European nation-states in their competitive quest for alliances, more colonies, and new markets destroyed what they had gained.
From a global perspective the first half of the 20 th century is a story of how Western Europe lost its relative position of global power. The disappearance of the European dominance in 1945 created a power vacuum. Within two years the United States and the Soviet Union replaced the old power structures as the new super powers. The Cold War replaced the fiery World War II inferno.
The Cold War The Iron Curtain divided the communist East and the capitalist West. The arms race of the Cold War continued forty years. However, both U. S. and Soviet leadership were challenged by their own allies.
Technology and Transportation 20 th century technologies altered the lives of ordinary peoples and the structure of their societies. A person whose life spanned the greater part of the 20 th century witnessed more technological change than any other generation in human history.
Humans were liberated from the efforts of slow, non-mechanized travel. 20 th Century transportation became inexpensive, dependable, and fast. The horse and buggy was replaced by trains, automobiles, and planes, enabling large migrations of peoples around the globe from agricultural regions to urban centers and to suburban clusters outside the city cores.
Urban Migration These changes were coupled with environment consequences as valuable agricultural lands and forest were cleared for highways. Air pollution in urban centers increased. Urban migrations served as a prelude to international migrations of peoples seeking work.
The Communications Revolution Between 1850 and 1913 world trade expanded tenfold, aided by the use of telephones and telegraphs. As the century ended, world trade had fully recovered from the devastation of two world wars and a depression.
Global trade was facilitated by the computer, the Internet, multinational corporations, and other parts of a true communications revolution. The sun never set on the global exchange nor on the news. Older forms of communications technology such as telephones and telegraphs were augmented but not replaced by newer forms of technology.
The realization that not all peoples share the same interpretation of events or the same understanding of the past has led to the need to understand multiple perspectives. At the same time, others recognized the importance of developing a clear understanding of one's own history and cultural traditions.
Future Challenges As we enter the 21 st century, economies in many parts of the world are booming, yet 20% of the world's peoples earn less than $500 a year. The earth's population has grown from 2. 50 billion in 1950 to over 6 billion today.
Yet within the rich cultural traditions of our multi-ethnic world, individuals are seeking solutions to these current challenges. If there is a legacy from the 20 th century, perhaps it is the resilience of human societies to develop solutions to global issues using ideas and technology within their own cultural context.
We are free to pick and choose which ideas and legacies will enrich our lives in the 21 st century.
People – 20 th Century Albert Einstein 1879 – 1955 He bumped Newton from the pinnacle of physics and painted a fantastic new picture of our universe. In the process, Albert Einstein changed the political and scientific balance of power in our century and for the foreseeable future.
Henry Ford 1863 – 1947 His revolutionary assembly line enabled him to sell his cars at a price the average American family could afford, and to double his workers' wages while cutting hours. What had been a toy of the rich became a necessity of life, spawning gas stations, superhighways and traffic jams around the world.
Sigmund Freud 1856 – 1939 Freud's emphasis on the power of the unconscious to influence behavior broadened our view of human nature and sexuality and gave rise to the age of self-examination.
Mohandas Gandhi 1869 – 1948, Gandhi's powerful strategy, called satyagraha, involved nonviolent noncooperation, boycotts of all things British, civil disobedience, marches and fasts. His methods use for Indian independence have been adopted by protest movements throughout the world.
Adolf Hitler 1889 – 1945 Along with his mastery of propaganda, his ideology of racial purity and his ruthless political skills, Hitler possessed a diabolical personal magnetism. By the time Hitler was defeated in 1945, as many as 77 million people had died, leaving him responsible for more death than any other man in the history of the world.
Edwin Hubble 1889 – 1953 His 1924 discovery that the Andromeda nebula is located beyond the known boundaries of the Milky Way forced other astronomers to revise their thinking: The existence of multiple galaxies meant the universe was far larger than imagined.
Helen Keller 1880 – 1968 An illness when she was 19 months old left her deaf, blind and mute. With the help of a teacher named Anne Sullivan -"the miracle worker" -- Helen Keller learned to understand language, read, write, hear, and speak. She remains proof that disability does not mean inability.
Martin Luther King 1929 – 1968 Martin Luther King Jr. 's crusade for equality started with a protest of the bus system in Montgomery, Ala. , in 1955, and peaked in the nation's capital. King won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, and in 1986 became only the third American whose birthday is observed as a national holiday. His call to "let freedom ring" still resonates.
Vladimir Lenin 1870 – 1924 He led the October 1917 revolution that delivered Russia to the Bolsheviks and started the worldwide spread of the Sovietstyle communism. A fighter against czarist injustice he laid the foundation for decades of totalitarianism.
Nelson Mandela 1918 – 2013 He roused South Africa's black majority – and sympathizers abroad -- to rebel against the system of racial tyranny known as apartheid. Nelson Mandela's courage and resolve earned him a Nobel Peace Prize, the presidency of his country and the admiration of millions around the world.
Mao Zedong 1893 – 1976 His Long March lead the Red Army, from resistance against the Japanese to defeat of the Nationalists and the rise, in 1949, of the People's Republic. A brilliant warrior, Mao was a despotic dictator. Mao cast a giant shadow on the world, and a darker one on his own people.
Guglielmo Marconi 1874 – 1937, Guglielmo Marconi's transmission of a signal – the Morse Code letter S -across the Atlantic in 1901 was a worldwide sensation. It opened the airwaves for today's complex network of global communications.
Kwame Nkrumah 1909 – 1972 His radical push for Ghanaian selfgovernance in the 1950 s triggered decolonization throughout the African continent, which led to the end of European domination.
Orville (1871 – 1948) and Wilbur (1867 – 1912) Wright In 1903, Orville and Wilbur succeeded in flying the first powered airplane. Flight time: 12 seconds. Mankind's view of the world -- and of its own power -- had changed forever.
Homework Submit : Submit Wednesday , September , 14 ; According to you which event of the XX century was the most significant for the humankind and why ? To prove your argument, choose an evidence or an example that must be MLA cited.