2 ESO UNIT 9 VOCABULARY Is there much
2º ESO UNIT 9
VOCABULARY • Is there much TRAFFIC in the streets ? • Solutions or positive things : PUBLIC TRANSPORT • Advantages and Disadvantages
VOCABULARY • Is there much NOISE in the streets ? • Solutions or positive things : PUBLIC TRANSPORT • Advantages and Disadvantages
VOCABULARY • Is there much POLLUTION in the streets ? • Solutions or positive things : PUBLIC TRANSPORT, OPEN SPACES • Advantages and Disadvantages
VOCABULARY • Is there much GRAFFITI in the streets ? • Solutions or positive things : PARK , YOUTH CLUB , OPEN SPACES • Advantages and Disadvantages
VOCABULARY • Is there much CRIME in the streets ? • Solutions or positive things : SECURITY CAMERA • Advantages and Disadvantages
VOCABULARY • Is there much LITTER in the streets ? • Solutions or positive things : BIN • Advantages and Disadvantages
VOCABULARY • Is there much VANDALISM in the streets ? • Solutions or positive things : SECURITY CAMERAS • Advantages and Disadvantages
COUNTABLE WORDS MANY UNCOUNTABLE WORDS MUCH Security cam Traffic Open space Pollution Graffiti ( there are two graffities in this wall) Graffiti Bin Litter Park Noise Sign Crime Street light Public transport Youth club Vandalism Teenager Food Sign Money Problem Burguer People
Countable nouns are things that can be counted. A countable noun can be singular or plural: one apple, two apples. . . When we want to count them we use …. . • A/An (singular / just one) A/An … or any cardinal number ten houses An apple A doctor A class three colleges A meal • SOME Some cups Some books Some libraries Some flights • ANY (As SOME but in negative and interrogative) I don’t have any cups at home (I have some glasses at home) They bought some CDs but they didn’t buy any books • A LOT OF (It means MUCHOS) A lot of questions A lot of problems A lot of issues • MANY (As A LOT OF but in negative and interrogative) They didn’t asked many questions. (They asked a lot of questions) Do they have many problems with the baby? Yes, they have a lot of problems with him • You cannot use singular countable nouns alone (without a/my/the car. . . ) but you can use plural countable nouns alone
Uncountable nouns are things that cannot be counted so they only have singular form: some rice, some tea. . . They usually refer to abstractions (such as confidence or advice) or collectives (such as equipment or luggage). Information, happiness, equipment… • Some and Any are used with both countable and uncountable nouns.
• COUNTING THE UNCOUNTABLES. • Some uncountable nouns in English can be countable in other SOME languages. Here you have a list of the most common uncountable Some sugar Some money Some water Some time • English words: ANY (As SOME but in negative and interrogative) haven’t gotgot anyany sugar Have you salt? Yes I have some salt but I advice bread news luggage baggage • A LOT OF A lot offurniture spaghetti pasta weather research traffic A lot of time A lot of sleep A lot of confidence work money grass scenery health • MUCHprogress º (As A LOT OF but in negative and interrogative) There isn’t much traffic today because it is Sunday (There was a lot Expressions of traffic yesterday) to count uncountable nouns. They didn’t have much time to finish the project (they have a lot of time to finish it) a tube of a litre of a kilo of one carton/two cartons of a slice of a bottle of a packet of a tin of an item of a piece of a spoonful of a glass of a bowl of a loaf of a can of
A / AN / SOME / ANY Type of sentence Countable Uncountable +AFFIRMATIVE We need an apple some apples a tomato any tomatoes a tomato? any tomatoes? some butter some milk any rice any sugar any rice? any sugar? SUMMING UP - NEGATIVE We don’t need ? INTERROGATIVE Do we need • Use a / an with singular countable nouns. • SOME. - with plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns in + sentences. • ANY. - with plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns in – or ? sentences. • We can also use some in ? to ask for and offerings: – Can I have some coffee? – Do you want some biscuits?
Choose a / an / some • • some a some some / a Milk Biscuits Chair Coffee Pasta Money Students Toast • • some some / an an some Wine Cars People Homework Ice cream Orange Fruit Fish
How much / how many…? • Possible answers: • Use How much…? with • I drink a lot of water. uncountable nouns. • I drink quite a lot. • How much water do you drink? • I don’t drink much water. (not much) • Use How many…? with • I don’t drink any water. plural countable nouns. • None. • How many students do you • Not many (students). have?
AFFIRMATIVE COUNTABLE SOME NEGATIVE/ INTERROGATIVE ANY UNCOUNTABLE MANY COUNTABLE A LOT OF UNCOUNTABLE MUCH
The words expressing quantity or quantifiers used with countable and uncountable words are:
Some nouns are countable with one meaning and uncountable with another meaning: A fish/Some fish A paper (a newspaper)/Some paper An iron/Some iron A wood/Some wood A hair/Some hair A coffee (a cup)/Some coffee A glass/Some glass A time/Some time
Exercises • http: //www. mdelu. com/useex/coun 1. htm You have to choose the correct quantifier depending on the following word • http: //www. mdelu. com/useex/counta/count 2. htm you have to quantify the uncountable words according to the pictures • http: //www. mdelu. com/useex/counta_mis/count 3. ht m you will see some typical mistakes of misuse of quantifiers.
Indefinite pronouns • We use indefinite pronouns to refer to people or things without saying exactly who, what or where they are. • We use SOME or ANY in affirmative and interrogative We use pronouns ending in -body or -one for people, and pronouns ending in -thing for things: and negative sentences • -where • SOME • ANY • -one • - thing PLACES AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE PEOPLE AND INTERROGATIVE OBJETCS
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS -ONE (people) -THING(objects) -WHERE(places) AFFIRMATIVE SOMEONE SOMETHING SOMEWHERE SOMEBODY ANYONE INTERROGATIVE ANYBODY NOONE* Alguien NEGATIVE ANYTHING NOTHING* Algo ANYWHERE ANYPLACE NOWHERE* Algún lugar
Indefinite pronouns are singular, so the verb must wear “s” in the present simple and you must use “is” and “was” with “to be”. E. g: • Somebody is at the door. (Alguien está en la puerta. ) • Everybody loves chocolate. (A todo el mundo le encanta el chocolate. ) • Nothing was ever the same. (Nada fue lo mismo. ) • Is there anywhere you want to go? (¿Hay un sitio dónde quieras ir? )
• • Would you like something to drink? I need nothing I went nowhere Nobody came to the meeting
Someone / Something/ Somewhere Anyone/ Anything / Anywhere something She bought ______ in the supermarket I saw ________there. (people) someone anything I did not see ________ there. Did you see ________ there? (people) anyone Would you like ________ something better? something I want ________to eat. Have you seen my car keysanywhere ________? Somebody ________ phoned while we were out, but they did not leave a message. Somewhere • They are looking for ______ to settle down and have children. They want to find a quiet place to lead a quiet life. anybody • "Is there ______ at home? “ • •
somewhere • I spent the night ___________ near the beach. somewhere • There is ______ to park here. Let's go ______ nowhere else to park. something • Would you like ____________ to wash your hands? . somewhere • They took him ________ in London, and he never returned. anything • Please don't leave _________ behind at home. We'll be away for a fortnight. Somebody • She needs ________ to love. She's very lonely. anything • There isn't ________ you can do to help them. anyone • We do not need _______ else to run this department. We can do it ourselves. Someone • _________ is ringing the bell. Go and see who it is
AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES NEGATIVE SENTENCES AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES
Activities • Make the following sentences negative: x There is some milk on the floor. x There is some water in the refrigerator. x. Someone is at the door. x. Everyone is tired after the trip. • Make the following sentences positive: x. There isn't anything good on TV tonight. x. No-one is at home. x. There aren't any books on the shelf. • Answer the following questions positively and negatively: x. Are there any boys in your math class? x. Is anyone ready for the test? x. Are any of you Chinese? x. Are there any good book stores in your town? x Is anything better than chocolate ice cream? • Ask questions for the following answers: x. Nobody is at the school today; it's Sunday. x. Yes, someone is in the kitchen with Dinah.
ONLINE ACTIVITIES • http: //www. shertonenglish. com/resources/es/pr onouns/pronouns-indefinite. php • http: //www. blueblocnotes. com/activities/gramm ar/quantity-expressions/some-and-anycompounds-activities • http: //www. grammarbank. com/indefinitepronouns-exercise. html • http: //www. english-4 u. de/some_any_ex 4. htm • http: //www. agendaweb. org/grammar/anyth ing-someone-exercises. html
SHOULD / MUST
Modal verbs • Rules – They are followed by a verb in the base form • I should study more – They are the same for all the pronouns • She/they/I/ you should make it better – They do not need auxiliars. They take direct negative and qestion forms • You mustn’t smoke here – They never combine with another modal verbs • You can’t must read**
SHOULD AND MUST Should is used for advices and recommendations • You should read books in English if you want to improve your vocabulary • She shouldn’t smoke because she is always coughing • Where should we go next summer? Must is used to talk about strong obligations and prohibitions. They are usually related with laws and rules. • I must go now , I start working in five minutes • You must wear a helmet to drive a motorbike • He mustn’t drink alcohol, he is underage STRUCTURE SUBJECT + SHOULD/MUST+ BASE FORM OF THE VERB (without to) SUBJECT + SHOULDN’T/MUSTN’T + BASE FORM OF THE VERB SHOULD/MUST + SUBJECT + BASE FORM?
YOU MUSTN’T SWIM IN THIS LAKE YOU MUSTN’T BRING A GUN, SMOKE, USE THE MOBILE AND YOU MUSTN’T SMOKE HERE YOU MUSTN’T THE BRING YOUREAT DOGINAT THE CLASSROOM SCHOOL
YOU MUST THROUGH THE ID YOU MUST BRING A PHOTO LITTER INTO A BIN
YOU SHOULD…. .
THIS IS THE ONE I LIKE THE MOST…
VOCABULARY • • • WATCH OUT FOR PUT ON SLOW DOWN GET ON PUT DOWN GO INTO • • • RUN OVER TAKE OF SPEED UP GET OFF PICK UP STAY OUT