# 2 Developing outcome based syllabus Writing and using

2 Developing outcome based syllabus • Writing and using course learning outcomes • Bloom's Taxonomy of Education Outcomes • Addressing Curriculum Mapping and Program Learning Outcomes • Course Syllabus

By the end of the class, you are able to: • Design course structure, activities, assessment based on course learning outcome that are explicit, challenge and achievable. • Associate subject learning outcome toward program level learning outcome • Understand the content in the areas of their expertise well enough to identify the main concepts, and articulate the evidence of learning of such concepts.

What are program learning objectives and what is outcomes based education? What is Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Outcomes? Why should I write them ? what's the most e�ective way to do it? How should I write outcomes to make them as useful as possible ? How can a working knowledge of the taxonomy help me improve the level of learning in my class? How can I write course learning objectives to address speciﬁed outcomes, such as those required for program accreditation?

Writing and using Course learning outcomes Outcomes usually begin Students should be able to [Verb from Bloom’s taxonomy] + task. “Label the [engine parts, types of rocks, emission spectra, clouds] in a series of photos. ” “Perform one-tailed and two-tailed hypothesis tests on sample means and variances. ” “Integrate algebraic and trigonometric functions and perform integration by parts. ”

Write detailed learning objectives that address the targeted knowledge and skills. Consider modifying the corresponding lessons, activities, and assignments to provide more practice and feedback in the task(s) speciﬁed in that outcomes. Create assignments and exams that test students' mastery of the tasks speciﬁed in the learning objectives. Share the outcome with the students, ideally as study guides for exams and other course assessments.

Scope of Learning outcomes Course level outcomes Board and cover in a few statements the knowledge and skills the course. “Students completing this course will be able to model physical systems with equations involving derivatives and integrals, solve those equations, and apply the solutions to describe or predict system behavior. ”

Individual lesson outcomes Outcomes may describe what students should be able to do after a single class session. “By the end of class today, you should be able to solve separable first order differential equations. ” Section-level outcomes Outcomes may also list student capabilities after a specificed section of the course. “To do well on the next exam, you should be able to model a physical system with a first-order ordinary differential equation, solve the equation, and apply the solution to describe or predict the system behavior. ”

Technically an outcome Part I : A statement of a measurable performance Observe Define Classify Construct Compute Internal state Know Learn Understand Realize Appreciate

Part 2 : A statement of conditions for the performance • These conditions define the circumstances under which students’ performance will be assessed. Condition “She have to demonstrate that she knows the difference among igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks in wiring, in an oral presentation or in a visual medium. ” How to assess

Part 3 : Criteria and Standards for Assessing the performance. By what criteria and standards will you evaluate and ultimately grade a student’s performance? The student will be able to identify in writing at least three differences between igneous and metamorphic rocks, at least three between igneous and sedimentary rocks, and at least three between metamorphic and sedimentary. A Be able to identify at least nine differences. B Be able to identify at least six differences. C Be able to identify at least four differences

Examples of Unacceptable, Weak, and Good Learning Outcomes Unacceptable Learn how to design and conduct experiments (unobservable). Weak Design an experiment and analyze the results (probably too vague). Good Design and carry out an experiment to measure a dependent variable as a function of one or two independent variables and perform an error analysis of the data. Explain in terms a bright high school senior could understand the meaning of the experimental results.

Bloom's Taxonomy of Education Outcomes Higher order thinking Create something new to the creator (design, develop, plan, formulate) Make and support evidence-based judgments (choose, prioritize, rate, cririque) Solve complex problems, interpret data, figure but system behavior and malfunctions (solve, drive, explain, predict, model, interpret) Apply known procedures to new situations and problems (solve, calculate, determine, implement) Demonstrate understanding of concepts (explain, paraphrase, interpret, classify, compare and contrast) Lower order thinking Memorize and repeat facts, replicate known procedure (define, list, identity, calculate)

Student Performance Verbs by Level of Cognitive Operation in Bloom’s Taxonomy

Structure of learning outcomes Ultimate Outcomes Mediating Outcomes Foundational Outcomes • Formulate your end of term that is the most challenging skills and cognitively advanced learning. • High levels of thinking (application, analysis, synthesis, or evaluation) • A combination of skills and abilities that students should have acquired earlier in the course. • Outcomes which students must achieve before attempting the more advanced outcomes • Skill-building logic • Lowest-level cognitive operations on the subject. • Existing knowledge and discipline-specific subjects such as physics, math.

Outcomes Map for a Graduate Course, College Teaching

Rubric for Evaluating and Revising Student Learning Outcomes Dimension Excellent Common Errors Need Revision Missed the Point Outcomes are observable, assessable, and measurable. Outcomes are assessable and measurable. The instructor can observe (usually see or hear) and evaluate each learner’s performance by clear standards—for example, how well, how many, to what degree. Some outcomes use verbs that refer to a learner’s internal state of mind, such as know, understand, or appreciate, which an instructor cannot observe and assess. Or some outcomes are too general to specify standards for evaluation. Outcomes do not describe (1) observable performances that are assessable and measurable and/or (2) what the learners will be able to do Outcomes list the topics the course will cover or what the instructor will do. Or outcomes use verbs that refer to a learner’s internal state of mind, which an instructor cannot observe and assess. Most outcomes require high levels of cognition. Most outcomes reﬂect high levels of cognition(application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation). All or almost all the outcomes require low levels of cognition (knowledge and comprehension), such as recognize, identify, deﬁne, or describe. Not enough outcomes address higher levels of cognition, given the level of the course and the learners. Some outcomes consistently use verbs that refer to a learner’s low-level internal state of mind, such as know, understand, or appreciate Outcomes are achievable. Outcomes are realistic for the course length and credit hours and the level of the learners. Outcomes are too numerous for the instructor to assess or the learners to achieve. Outcomes are too advanced for the course length or credit hours for the learners. Outcomes don’t use action verbs to describe what the learners will be able to do. Outcomes are relevant and meaningful to the learners. Outcomes are relevant to the learners and their personal or career goals. Not all the outcomes and their beneﬁts are clear to the learners. The learners can’t make Outcomes don’t indicate sense out of the outcomes. what the learners will be able to do.

Addressing Curriculum Mapping and Program Learning Outcomes Course learning outcomes Program learning outcomes Institution learning outcomes

Program Learning outcomes (PLO) • Statements that describe what learners will know and be able to do when they graduate from a program. They are closely linked to the credential framework and program standards set by the provincial Ministry of Training Colleges and Universities. Stakeholder analysis

Sub-PLO • Sub-PLOs are from the break down process of a PLO. It is a statement that includes the skill, knowledge and attitude. • Example : Be able to apply the working knowledge of estimation techniques, rules of thumb, and engineering heuristics. Learning outcomes/Course learning outcomes • Statements that describe significant and essential learning that learners have achieved, and can reliably demonstrate at the end of a course or program. In other words, learning outcomes identify what the learner will know and be able to do by the end of a course or program. • Example: Be able to integrate algebraic and trigonometric functions and perform integration by parts.

Curriculum Alignment Matrix PLO 1 Curriculum Mapping PLO Course Sub-PLO 1 MTH 100 1 Sub-PLO 2 LNG 101 Sub-PLO 3 2 CHM 103 1 2 APE 111 3 2 1 = introduced, 2 = practiced, 3 = demonstrated Sub-PLO Curriculum Alignment of Sub-PLO and Course outcomes PLO 1 MTH 100 Learning outcome LNG 101 CHM 103 APE 111 APE 212 APE 213 Sub PLO 1. 1 X LO 1. 2 X LO 1. 3 Courses APE 211 X Sub Pl. O 2 LO 2. 1 LO 2. 2 X X 1 = introduced, 2 = practiced, 3 = demonstrated …

Lower order thinking Higher order thinking

Course Syllabus APPROPRIATE SYLLABUS ITEMS 1. Complete course information : The course number and title, days, hours, and location of class meetings , the titles and location of any online course materials, exercises, assignments, exams and any required or recommended prerequisites. 2. Information about yourself : full name and title, the way you wish to be addressed, your oﬃce hours, your oﬃce location, your oﬃce phone number, email address, and home page URL. 3. Information about teaching assistants (TAs) 4. A brieﬂy annotated list of reading materials such as assigned books, journal articles. 5. Any other materials required for the course, including cost estimates and where to ﬁnd them at a good price. 6. A complete course description, including the organization or ﬂow of the course.

APPROPRIATE SYLLABUS ITEMS 7. Your student learning outcomes for the course. 8. All graded course requirements and a complete breakdown of your grading scale, preferably buttressed by a rationale. 9. The criteria on which each written assignment, project, and oral presentation will be evaluated, including your grading system and your policies regarding revisions and extra credit. 10. Other course requirements aside from those computed in the grade. 11. Your policies on attendance and tardiness. 12. Your policies on missed or late exams and assignments. 13. A statement of your and your institution’s policies on academic dishonesty, as well as their applications to your course. 14. Proper safety procedures and conduct for laboratories.

APPROPRIATE SYLLABUS ITEMS 15. Relevant campus support services for students and their locations for assistance in mastering course software, doing computer assignments, writing papers or lab reports, learning study skills, and solving homework problems. 16. Other available study or assignment aids. 17. A weekly or class-by-class course schedule with as much of the following as possible. 18. Curricular requirements your course satisﬁes, such as general education; writing, speaking, or ethics-across-the-curriculum. 19. Background information about yourself, such as your degrees, universities you attended, other universities where you have taught or conducted research. 20. Your teaching philosophy.

Graphic syllabus • Big picture • Visual tool to communicate your course to students. • A flowchart, graphic organizer or diagram of the sequencing and calendar schedule of the topics. • Interrelationships of the weekly topics.

The Course Design Triangle 1) Learning Objectives that describes of what students should be able to do at the end of the course. 2) Assessments that provide feedback on students’ knowledge and skill. 3) Instructional activities that foster students’ active engagement in learning.

Task-oriented question construction wheel based on Bloom’s Taxonomy 2004 Edward’s University Teaching for Teaching Excellence

Example of Course syllabus – course design triangle

Outcome method with Bloom’s taxonomy

Summary • Outcomes are what students are able to do by the end of program, courses or session. • Bloom’s taxonomy is used for writing outcomes and measurement. • Course learning outcomes can be break down into Ultimate, Mediating and Foundation outcomes. • Curriculum mapping is used to determine whether your objectives are aligned with the curriculum. • Course design triangular is used to design course syllabus based on three components - Learning objectives, activities and assessment.

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