1939 1945 http www historyonthenet comLessonsworksheetsww 2 htm
- Slides: 68
1939 -1945 http: //www. historyonthenet. com/Lessons/worksheets/ww 2. htm
� Germany �Planes used “Blitzkrieg” – or lightening war bombed airfields, factories, towns, etc. �Then tanks and troops roared into the country �Motorized high speed “keep enemy off balance
� Poland was conquered within a month � Soviet forces took control of �Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and part of Finland
INVASION OF POLAND Two days later Britain & France declared war • So begins the phase of the war called the “phony war” • Coalition Forces wait at the “impenetrable defensive barrier” Maginot Line where all was quiet • Why did the Allied forces not go on the offensive? •
Maginot Line http: //www. history. com/shows/wwii-in-hd/interactives/inside-wwii-interactive
EUROPEAN NATIONS CONTINUE TO FALL � 1) 2) 3) 4) April 1940, launched blitzkrieg against: Norway Denmark Netherlands Belgium http: //www. youtube. com/ watch? v=Fdd. KPGE 19 w. A&fe ature=relmfu http: //www. bbc. co. uk/ history/worldwars/wwt wo/launch_ani_fall_fra nce_campaign. shtml Miracle of Dunkirk n n Germans pushed all French/British troops to the coastline British sent an improvised armada to rescue trapped soldiers in France
� Germany heads toward Paris! �Benito Mussolini of Italy put his Pact of Steel with Hitler into action � Italy declared war against France and Britain on June 10 �June 22, 1940 – French surrender �a new government formed by Marshal Philippe Petain (France's hero of World War I) requested an armistice �France was divided into two zones, one under German military occupation and the other under Petain's government (south) �Petain’s government was Hitler’s “puppet” Becomes known as Vichy France
� Charles de Gaulle – French general, set up a government in exile in London. �Committed to reconquering France. �Organized Free French military who battled the Nazis until France was liberated in 1944.
http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Gi 7 mc. JCOWp 4 � Air power takes prominent role �Luftwaffe- German air force �Parachute troops role increases � Tanks were much improved from WWI � Deadlier bombs � Radar – to detect planes � Sonar – to detect submarines
� Hitler now turned his attention to Britain, � invasion (Operation Sea Lion) German planes bombed Britain throughout the summer of 1940 � including night raids on London and other industrial centers
�Known as the “London Blitz” � 8/12/1940 – air attacks on southern England � Germans bombed London for 57 nights � Considered a failure because British did not quit � Continued until May 10, 1941 � The Royal Air Force (RAF) eventually defeated the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) � Hitler turns his attention out of Britain onto the Eastern Front
Winston Churchill What is Churchill’s prediction if they lose to the Nazi army? -End of the free world Prime Minister who rallied Britain to fight against Nazi aggression “voice of calm” Churchill rallies the British http: //www. history. com/shows/wwii-inhd/interactives/inside-wwii-interactive Britain began receiving crucial aid from the U. S. under the Lend-Lease Act, passed by Congress in early 1941.
http: //www. bbc. co. uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo
http: //www. bbc. co. uk/schools/primaryhistory/world_war 2/
� Hitler’s goal: continue expanding German property…. �East of the Balkans �Mediterranean Sea �SOVIET UNION
� Mussolini takes North Africa in September of 1940 while the Battle of Britain was going on. � Attacked British controlled Egypt. �Egypt’s Suez Canal near Cairo = key to reaching oil fields of the Middle East � Britain strikes back in December and by February 1941 � Italy needs help…
� Hitler lends help to Mussolini � Germans come in with the Afrika Korps �German expeditionary force in Libya and Tunisia �its first commander Erwin Rommel “Desert Fox” � Seize Tobruk (Libya)= loss for the Allies http: //player. discoveryeducation. com/index. cfm ? guid. Asset. Id=107 BDA 7 D-6 E 12 -4 F 41 -9 E 4 C 7 D 21 F 651 A 6 CC
THE NAZI EMPIRE CONTINUES TO GROWS The Axis power grows. . � � � Bulgaria Hungary Romania � Greece and Yugoslavia had pro-British governments � Resist Hitler � Hitler invades them These nations mostly devote resources and political alliance to the Nazis • They deport Jews to Poland • The employ secret police forces • They become puppet governments
� 1941 go get the USSR!!! � The Soviet Union was their allies…Why invade? �Plentiful Soviet resources! � Stalin had the largest army in the world but it wasn’t prepared! � 3 million Germans caught Stalin’s 5 million unprepared � Soviets �Used retreated “torch-earth policy”
1941 � Nazis invade the Soviet Union � Jewish population of 3 million � Hitler issues infamous “Commissar Order” � SS Einsatzgruppen follow advance of “Liquidate all Communist German Army officials you encounter!
EINSATZGRUPPEN SS “Special Action Groups” organized in early years of war by Reinhard Heydrich � Heydrich organized 4 large groups (A, B, C, D) in Soviet Union � Competition between group leaders to see who could kill the most Jews � 1, 300, 000 Russian Jews killed by end of war by these “mobile killing units” �
EINSATZ AREA OF OPERATIONS
� German’s surrounded Leningrad �Starved them �USSR lost 2. 5 million troops � Next moved towards Moscow, the capital of the Soviet Union! �Germans were halted by Russia’s cold weather October 1941 �Germany fails to take Moscow! � Germans want oil fields in the Caucuses “Liquidate all Communist officials you encounter!
� End of Neutrality Acts � Lend-Lease Act (1941) �Selling or lending of war materials to countries “Vital to US defense” �United States of America supplied Britain, Soviet Union, China, Free France, and other Allied nations � Atlantic Charter (Aug. 1941) �FDR and Churchill agree on: Free trade and the right of people to CHOOSE their government “Final destruction of Nazi tyranny”
� � � 43 min Dunkirk 49 min Pearl Harbor 52 min Afrika Campaign 55 min Battle of Stalingrad 58 min D-day 1 hour France is free 1 hour 4 min The Big Three Meetagree invasion of mainland Japan 1 hour 7 min Germany surrenders 1 hour 11 min – May 13 1945 Churchill proclaims war is over 1 hour 13 min- July 16 1945 Robert Oppenheimer tests atomic bomb 1 hour 19 min- dropping of the atomic bomb in Japan � http: //player. discovery education. com/index. cf m? guid. Asset. Id=7 FA 4128 B-D 776 -4 C 5 E-BC 2 B 91 AE 844 A 3
JAPAN ATTACKS; PEARL HARBOR (DAY OF INFAMY) � America controlled Philippine Islands and Guam � Japan had successfully grabbed Manchuria, China and beyond…plans to take Southeast Asia � http: //www. history. com/shows/wwii-in-hd/interactives/inside-wwii-interactive Japan invades � America sends aid to China � 1940 FDR bans the sale of iron, steel and airplanes to Japan
� Tripartite Pact : Japan joins Axis on September 27, 1940 � Japan felt that the US was interfering in their plans to expand �Naval strategist Isoroku Yamamoto plans � 12/7/1941 – Japan surprise attacks American fleet @ Pearl Harbor (Hawaii) 2, 400 deaths � US declares war on Japan (12/8/1941) �Germany, Italy declare war on US four days later!
�Factories stopped making cars & refrigerators & made planes & tanks �Shoes and sugar were rationed �Use of propaganda �War ended unemployment of the depression �Japanese people in US and Canada �Lost their jobs and property �Forced into internment camps �Seen as a security risk
Nazi anti-British & American propaganda
British anti-Nazi propaganda
British anti-Nazi propaganda
� Strikes towards the British and Dutch �Seize Hong Kong �Invades Malaysia �Singapore surrenders �Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia)-- [rich in resources] �Burma � Other �Seize Strikes towards the United States Guam and the Wake Island in western Pacific �Attack on the Philippines to march into capital Manila
June 1942 � Midway Islands= West of Hawaii � � Home to a key American airfield � Japanese secret plan to capture � The U. S. would make sure the Japanese Navy would reach no further � Over 150 Japanese ships head towards American ships � Japan strikes first � Marked the beginning of “Island Hopping” The recapture some islands while bypassing others � Yamamoto himself on the largest ship � U. S. Pacific Fleet took down 332 planes, all 4 aircraft carriers � Yamamoto � retreats withdraws! http: //player. discoveryeducation. com/index. cfm? guid. Asset. Id=C E 0 D 53 F 2 -C 9 EC-4 DAF-A 728 -0 BDFA 9355 B 9 D
ISLAND HOPPING Bypass heavily fortified Concentrate on striking important weaker points “Leapfrogging”
� Japanese attempt to seize Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands to build large air base � Access to Australia � Aug 1942 Allied troops with Australia on their side, attack! �General Mac. Arthur US Marines captured a huge Japanese Air Force base Japanese lost 24, 000 troops � Japans goal: Establish a new order in Southeast Asia and the Pacific
� Puppet governments in Western Europe run by “Aryans” � Eastern Europeans “inferior”, shoved aside for more living space � Nazis stripped conquered nations of art, factories and resources � Used Eastern Europeans as slave laborers; shot and tortured prisoners THE SITUATION IN NAZI EUROPE
� Battle of El Alamein, Egypt � Operation Torch � British takes down Rommel �Rommel’s army retreats http: //player. discoveryeducation. com/index. cfm? guid. Asset. Id=2 C 522 DC 6 -BF 0 F-4430 -B 520 -22282 FFFEF 25
� Allies had regained possession of Tobruk �Allies finally brought German Panzers to a halt � 107, 000 Allied troops invade � land in Algeria and Morocco � Mussolini orders Italians to invade Egypt � Battle of El Alamein October 1942 � Egypt – The battle halted the second (and final) advance by the Axis forces going into Egypt �ended Axis hopes of occupying Egypt, taking control of the Suez Canal, and gaining access to the Middle Eastern oil fields.
� Operation Torch � 8 November 1942; ended on 11 November. American and British Commonwealth landed in French North Africa � under the assumption that there would be little to no resistance British led by Gen. Bernard Montgomery US led by Gen. Douglas Mac. Arthur �invasion of northwestern Africa — Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, � African territory was in the hands of Petain’s Vichy French “Nazi puppet” government � Successful completion of these operations was to be followed by an advance eastwards into Tunisia.
n n Allies advance into Tunisia Rommel is outflanked, outmanned and outgunned. • Rommel gets the infamous "victory or death" stand-fast order from Hitler • demanded the impossible • virtually ensured the destruction of Panzer Army Africa, • Rommel could not bring himself to disobey a direct order from his Führer n Allies trap Rommel’s army and force surrender in May of 1943 n led to all Italian colonies in Africa being captured. • Rommel named a “disgrace” • Hitler says face court of people that will scorn your legacy or commit suicide quietly • Rommel takes cyanide pill and dies 1944
� Turning Point: Battle of Stalingrad � Street by street and house by house battles � Nightly bomb raids by the Germans � Nov 1942 Germans controlled 90 % of the city � ANOTHER RUSSIAN WINTER SETS IN � February 1943 Germans surrender ! Stalingrad is now called Volgograd � 300, 000 killed or injured � Over one million Soviet soldiers died � City was 99% destroyed � Soviets then drive Germans back westward http: //player. discoveryedu cation. com/index. cfm? guid Asset. Id=29091 B 7 E-0 A 464353 -AA 49 -960 E 4229 AFA 1
� Turning Point in Europe � 9 month campaign for the Allies to regain France �D-Day June 6 th 1944 � To Allied paratroopers and ferried troops (176, 000) Fought against heavy gunfire and snipers invade the beaches of Normandy �Largest Land Sea attack in history
� Battle of Normandy �August Allies made their way to Paris �By September France was free �AND had liberated Belgium, Luxembourg, and much of the Netherlands � France named 4 th republic and on the road to peace Now Allies push towards Germany!! http: //player. discoveryeducation. com/ind ex. cfm? guid. Asset. Id=B 94 DB 811 -9 CEE-48 A 9 A 18 B-942 CF 10 F 1 C 6 F
� July 1943 British and American forces land in Sicily and defeat the Italians in 1 month � King Victor Emmanuel III fired Mussolini � Allied forced landed in Sicily in 1943 �Controlled Sicily in one month � Italy surrendered within two months � Sept 1943 Italy surrenders � Hitler uses his control over the North to put Mussolini back in charge http: //www. bbc. co. uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch_ani_i taly_campaign. shtml
� Allies enter Rome in June, pushing Nazis up � Although Italy had surrendered, Germany continued to battle the allies in Italy until the end of the war �Mussolini is found disguised as a German general in April 1945 �He was shot and hung in Milan town square
� TIME TO ATTACK GERMANY! � Germany was facing a war on three fronts �US to the west (coming from France) �Soviet Union to the east �US and UK to the south (coming from Italy) � Germany � 85 -mile on the offensive for the last time front in the Ardennes Forest �Germans able to push into Allied lines �Ultimately unsuccessful push because the Allies pushed back and won!
http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=FSxnvwxs. Am 8 THE END OF WAR IN EUROPE � Soviets have control of the capital: Berlin, Germany �Hitler had an underground headquarters there � Hitler commits suicide (4/30/1945), in his underground bunker w/ wife Eva Braun � May 7 th Germany surrenders � May 8 th surrender was officially signed in Berlin �V-E Day or Victory in Europe Day
Surrender in France Surrender in USSR