15 Mineral Resources Question of the Day Describe

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15 Mineral Resources

15 Mineral Resources

Question of the Day: Describe what you know about mining in the US. What

Question of the Day: Describe what you know about mining in the US. What mineral resources does PA have? Why are mineral resources valuable?

Overview of Chapter 15 Introduction to Minerals Environmental Impact Associated with Minerals An International

Overview of Chapter 15 Introduction to Minerals Environmental Impact Associated with Minerals An International Perspective Increasing the Supply of Minerals Using Substitution and Conservation to Expand Mineral Supplies © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Minerals Mineral An inorganic solid, occurring naturally in or on the earth’s

Introduction to Minerals Mineral An inorganic solid, occurring naturally in or on the earth’s crust with a precise chemical composition Rock Naturally formed aggregate of minerals Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic Ore Rock that contains enough of a mineral to be profitably mined and extracted © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Rock Cycle © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Rock Cycle © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Important Minerals and Their Uses © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights

Important Minerals and Their Uses © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Where minerals come from? http: //www. mapsofworld. com/world-mineral -map. htm © 2012 John Wiley

Where minerals come from? http: //www. mapsofworld. com/world-mineral -map. htm © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mineral Distribution and Formation Abundant minerals in crust Aluminum Scarce minerals in crust Copper,

Mineral Distribution and Formation Abundant minerals in crust Aluminum Scarce minerals in crust Copper, and iron chromium, and molybdenum Distributed unevenly across globe If found in low abundance, mining is not profitable © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Formation of Mineral Deposits Result of natural processes Magmatic concentration As magma cools heavier

Formation of Mineral Deposits Result of natural processes Magmatic concentration As magma cools heavier elements (Fe and Mg) settle Responsible for deposits of Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr Hydrothermal processes Minerals are carried and deposited by water heated deep in earth’s crust Sedimentation Weathered particles are transported by water and deposited as sediment on sea floor or shore Evaporation Salts are left behind after water body dries up © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Discovering Mineral Deposits Scientists (geologists) use a variety of instruments and measurements Aerial or

Discovering Mineral Deposits Scientists (geologists) use a variety of instruments and measurements Aerial or satellite photography Seismographs Combine this with knowledge of how minerals are formed © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Extracting Minerals Surface Mining Mineral and energy resources are extracted near Earth’s surface Remove

Extracting Minerals Surface Mining Mineral and energy resources are extracted near Earth’s surface Remove soil, subsoil and over-lying rock strata (overburden) More common because less expensive Two kinds Open pit - large hole is dug Strip Mine - trench is dug © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Surface Mining - Open Pit © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights

Surface Mining - Open Pit © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Surface Mining - Strip Mine © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights

Surface Mining - Strip Mine © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

FOR HW: Read Mountain Top Removal Article http: //www. smithsonianmag. com/sciencenature/Mining-the-Mountain. html Article on

FOR HW: Read Mountain Top Removal Article http: //www. smithsonianmag. com/sciencenature/Mining-the-Mountain. html Article on Mountaintop Removal in WVA http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=c. W 9 dni 4 r 9 y 8&safe=active © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Questions to answer from Smithsonian Article: What is the controversy in Ansted, WV? What

Questions to answer from Smithsonian Article: What is the controversy in Ansted, WV? What are some of the impacts of mountain top removal? How important is land reclamation? How should it be done?

“Devastation from Above” http: //www. smithsonianmag. com/sciencenature/Devastation-From-Above. html#

“Devastation from Above” http: //www. smithsonianmag. com/sciencenature/Devastation-From-Above. html#

Extracting Minerals Subsurface Mining Mineral and energy resources are extracted from deep underground deposits

Extracting Minerals Subsurface Mining Mineral and energy resources are extracted from deep underground deposits Two kinds Shaft mine - direct vertical shaft into the vein of ore, which is hoisted up using buckets Slope mine - slanting passage where ore is lifted our using carts © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Subsurface Mining - Shaft Mine © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights

Subsurface Mining - Shaft Mine © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Subsurface Mining - Slant Mine © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights

Subsurface Mining - Slant Mine © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mining and Mining Disasters

Mining and Mining Disasters

Mine disaster 2010 http: //www. msnbc. msn. com/id/36183425/ns/us _news-life/ Update to 2010 Explosion http:

Mine disaster 2010 http: //www. msnbc. msn. com/id/36183425/ns/us _news-life/ Update to 2010 Explosion http: //www. nytimes. com/2011/01/29/us/29 mine. html And business goes on: Massey Energy Sold http: //www. bloomberg. com/news/2011 -0129/alpha-natural-agrees-to-buy-massey-energy -for-8 -5 -billion-in-cash-stock. html

Update to Massey Energy disaster http: //www. sfgate. com/cgibin/article. cgi? f=/c/a/2011/12/06/MN 141 M 90

Update to Massey Energy disaster http: //www. sfgate. com/cgibin/article. cgi? f=/c/a/2011/12/06/MN 141 M 90 M 4. DTL Chilean disaster 2010 http: //topics. nytimes. com/top/reference/timesto pics/subjects/c/chile_mining_accident_2010/in dex. html

NPR Story on WV NPR How West WV chemical industry/coal mining etc. affecting WV

NPR Story on WV NPR How West WV chemical industry/coal mining etc. affecting WV http: //www. npr. org/p rograms/freshair/2014/01/29/2682 02895/fresh-air-forjanuary-292014? show. Date=20 14 -01 -29 © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Processing Minerals Smelting- process in which ore is melted at high temps to separate

Processing Minerals Smelting- process in which ore is melted at high temps to separate impurities from the molten metal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mining and the Environment Disturbs large area US- current and abandoned mines cover 9

Mining and the Environment Disturbs large area US- current and abandoned mines cover 9 million hectares Prone to erosion Uses large quantities of water Must pump water out of mine to keep it dry © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) Pollution caused when sulfuric acid and dissolved lead, arsenic or

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) Pollution caused when sulfuric acid and dissolved lead, arsenic or cadmium wash out of mines into nearby waterways © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Acid Mine Drainage in PA Articles to read about Acid mine drainage in PA.

Acid Mine Drainage in PA Articles to read about Acid mine drainage in PA. http: //thetimes-tribune. com/news/oldforge-borehole-drains-mines-for-50 years-1. 1421199 http: //conservancy. umn. edu/bitstrea m/59448/1/5. 1. Reinhardt. pdf http: //articles. philly. com/2013 -0110/business/36239825_1_coal-mines -white-paper-oil-and-gas © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Environmental Impacts of Refining Minerals © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights

Environmental Impacts of Refining Minerals © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Environmental Impacts of Refining Minerals 80% or more of mined ore consists of impurities

Environmental Impacts of Refining Minerals 80% or more of mined ore consists of impurities - called tailings (below) Contain toxic materials Smelting plants emit large amounts of air pollutants Requires a lot of energy (fossil fuels combustion) © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Restoration of Mining Lands Mining lands called derelict lands Goals: prevent further degradation and

Restoration of Mining Lands Mining lands called derelict lands Goals: prevent further degradation and erosion of land, eliminate local sources of toxins and make land productive for another purpose Reclaimed Coal-Mined Land © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Restoration of Mining Land Creative Approaches - Use Created Wetlands Trap and filter pollutants

Restoration of Mining Land Creative Approaches - Use Created Wetlands Trap and filter pollutants before they get into streams Initially expensive, but cost effective compared to using lime to decrease acidity - Use Phytoremediation Use of specific plants to absorb and accumulate toxic materials in soil © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Minerals: An International Perspective Highly developed countries Rely on mineral deposits in developing countries

Minerals: An International Perspective Highly developed countries Rely on mineral deposits in developing countries They have exhausted their own supplies Developing countries Governments lack financial resources to handle pollution Acid mine drainage, air and water pollution © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

North American Consumption of Selected Metals © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All

North American Consumption of Selected Metals © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Will We Run Out of Important Metals? Mineral Reserves Mineral deposits that have been

Will We Run Out of Important Metals? Mineral Reserves Mineral deposits that have been identified and are currently profitable to extract Mineral Resources Any undiscovered mineral deposits or known deposits of low-grade ore that are currently unprofitable to extract Estimates of reserves and resources fluctuate with economy Difficult to forecast future mineral supplies © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Increasing Supply of Minerals – Locating and Mining New Deposits Many known mineral deposits

Increasing Supply of Minerals – Locating and Mining New Deposits Many known mineral deposits have not yet been exploited Difficult to access Insufficient technology Located too deep Ex: 10 km or deeper © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Minerals in Antarctica No substantial mineral deposits identified to date Antarctic Treaty (1961) Limits

Minerals in Antarctica No substantial mineral deposits identified to date Antarctic Treaty (1961) Limits activity to peaceful uses (i. e. scientific studies) Madrid Protocol (1990) Moratorium on mineral exploration and development for minimum of 50 years © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Minerals from the Ocean May provide us with future supplies Extracting minerals from seawater

Minerals from the Ocean May provide us with future supplies Extracting minerals from seawater Mining seafloor - Manganese nodules © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Advance Mining and Processing Technologies Special techniques to make use of large, lowgrade mineral

Advance Mining and Processing Technologies Special techniques to make use of large, lowgrade mineral deposits world-wide Biomining Using microorganisms to extract minerals from low-grade ores © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Finding Mineral Substitutes Important goal in manufacturing Substitute expensive/scarce mineral resources for inexpensive/abundant ones

Finding Mineral Substitutes Important goal in manufacturing Substitute expensive/scarce mineral resources for inexpensive/abundant ones Examples: Using plastic, glass or aluminum in place of tin Using glass fibers instead of copper wiring in telephone cables © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mineral Conservation Includes reuse and recycling of existing mineral supplies Reuse - using items

Mineral Conservation Includes reuse and recycling of existing mineral supplies Reuse - using items over and over again Reduces both mineral consumption and pollution Recycling- converting item into new product Reduces land destruction from mining Reduces solid waste © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Changing Our Mineral Requirements Must change our “throw away” mentality © 2012 John Wiley

Changing Our Mineral Requirements Must change our “throw away” mentality © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Traditional Flow of Minerals Waste produced in all steps in the production of minerals

Traditional Flow of Minerals Waste produced in all steps in the production of minerals © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sustainable Manufacturing © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sustainable Manufacturing © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Story of Stuff http: //storyofstuff. org/movies/story-ofelectronics/ © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All

Story of Stuff http: //storyofstuff. org/movies/story-ofelectronics/ © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.