12811 BR There were no advanced cities in

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12/8/11 BR- There were no advanced cities in the Indus valley. Prove me wrong.

12/8/11 BR- There were no advanced cities in the Indus valley. Prove me wrong. Today: Writing a Letter about the Indus Valley!

You Are the Archeologist: • Imagine that you have been studying ancient civilizations in

You Are the Archeologist: • Imagine that you have been studying ancient civilizations in the Indus valley. I would like you to write a letter back to your famous colleague Professor Indiana Jones.

Details of the Letter Dear Indiana, The civilizations of the Indus valley are ______.

Details of the Letter Dear Indiana, The civilizations of the Indus valley are ______. I have learned a great deal about them but much remains a mystery because_______. We have discovered that civilization began to emerge in this area around_____. (include 3 details. ) One people we have learned about were the Harappans. (Include one detail each about the Harappans (1) Language, (2)Culture, (3) Religion, (4) Trade. ) Sadly, much of what happened here may remain lost to us. We do know that the people of the Indus went into decline and disappeared. (discuss 2 theories of what happened to the people of the Indus valley. ) That’s all for now! Take care of the crystal skulls you found and I’ll see you at the next museum party! Your Friend,

Monsoon-Seasonal Wind • Summer monsoon-Wet season • Monsoon means wind that changes direction with

Monsoon-Seasonal Wind • Summer monsoon-Wet season • Monsoon means wind that changes direction with season. • Monsoon is the seasonal weather pattern that dominates India. Means “season” in Arabic.

OROGRAPHIC CLOUDS, AKA Rain Shadow • Lifting due to Topography produces orographic clouds •

OROGRAPHIC CLOUDS, AKA Rain Shadow • Lifting due to Topography produces orographic clouds • When air is confronted by a mountain, it is lifted up and over the mountain, cooling as it rises. • If the air cools to its saturation point, the water vapor condenses and a cloud forms.

Winter Monsoon • Winter-Dry season • During the winter, the flow of air reverses.

Winter Monsoon • Winter-Dry season • During the winter, the flow of air reverses. The continent cools rapidly forming a large area of high pressure over north central Asia. Now the drier, colder air of the continent blows offshore creating the dry monsoon season.

Indus • The Indus Valley Civilization (3000 BC – 1500 BC)and matured around (2600

Indus • The Indus Valley Civilization (3000 BC – 1500 BC)and matured around (2600 BC– 1900 BC) • The mature phase of this civilization is known as the Harappan Civilization

Advanced Cities • Mohenjo-Daro - one of the administrative centers of the ancient Indus

Advanced Cities • Mohenjo-Daro - one of the administrative centers of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. . • The planning and engineering showed the importance of the city to the people of the Indus valley. • Harrappa • was built according to plans of well-laid-out streets, • differentiated living quarters • flat-roofed brick houses, and fortified administrative or religious centers.

Advanced Cities Continued… • Lothal • was a trading center with its trade of

Advanced Cities Continued… • Lothal • was a trading center with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments. • had the world’s first dock. • Lothal's people were responsible for the earliest-known portrayals of realism in art and sculpture.

Specialized workers • Bronze workers that worked metals into jewelry, weapons or tools •

Specialized workers • Bronze workers that worked metals into jewelry, weapons or tools • Bricklayers • Scribes • Merchants

Complex Institutions • This ancient civilization had a strong central government • The Indus

Complex Institutions • This ancient civilization had a strong central government • The Indus civilization had a polytheistic religion. • Certain animals and human figures were worshipped.

Writing and Record Keeping • The people of the Indus Valley Civilization developed a

Writing and Record Keeping • The people of the Indus Valley Civilization developed a writing system that we are still unable to read. • Over 2, 000 stone seals have been found • These seals were in quadrangular shapes • The most common seal found was of an unicorn. • Those found in Indus Valley were similar to those found in Mesopotamia. (Which suggests …. . what? )

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY: One of the first early civilizations to have: - wide streets laid

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY: One of the first early civilizations to have: - wide streets laid out in a grid pattern - plumbing - sewer system The cities of the Indus Valley were well planned and had covered drains. Indus houses had protection against noise, odors, and thieves. Standardized weights and measures