- Slides: 21
● 1. You Are Married With Too Many Children. ● 2. You Are A Midwife. ● 3. You Are Very Old. ● 4. You Are Very Young. ● 5. Butter Or Milk Has Spoiled In Your Fridge. ● 6. You Have Attempted To Predict The Identity Of Your Future Spouse. ● 7. You Cannot Support Yourself Financially.
● 8. You Are Financially Independent. ● 9. You Are Female. ● 10. You Have One Or More Female Friends. ● 11. You Have Had An Argument With One Or More Of Your Female Friends. ● 12. You Have Had An Argument Or Disagreement With Someone. ● 13. You Have Exhibited “Stubborn, ” “Strange, ” Or “Forward Behavior. ” ● 14. You Have A Mole Or Birthmark.
Then congratulations! You would have been GUILTY of practicing WITCHCRAFT in the 1600’s.
● The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people falsely accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. The trials resulted in the executions of twenty people, most of them women.
● A woman thought to have evil magical powers ● Associated with the devil and all things evil
● Strong belief that Satan is present and acting in the ● ● “invisible” world: disease, natural catastrophes, and bad fortune The supernatural was a part of everyday life A belief that Satan actively recruits witches and wizards Belief that a person afflicted by witchcraft exhibits certain symptoms. Any unfortunate series of events was commonly blamed on the devil.
● exaggerated or uncontrollable emotion or excitement, ● ● especially among a group of people Unmanageable emotional excess Fear can be associated with an imagined problem (not real) Mass hysteria: the collective delusions of threats to society that spread rapidly through rumors and fear; for example, an entire community of people all fear the same thing (like witches) The Salem Witch Hunts is one of the greatest examples of mass hysteria in American history.
● Any kind of trouble made it seem likely that ● ● ● Satan was active in the world Congregational strife in Salem Village Stimulation of imaginations by Tituba (a slave from Barbados) Teenage boredom To avoid being hanged, some people confessed to being a witch even though they weren’t Old feuds (property disputes) between the accusers and the accused spurring charges of witchcraft
How the witch hunts began ● In January 1692, 9 -year-old Elizabeth (Betty) Parris and 11 -year-old Abigail Williams (the daughter and niece of Samuel Parris, minister of Salem Village) began having fits, including violent contortions and uncontrollable outbursts of screaming. After a local doctor, William Griggs, diagnosed bewitchment, other young girls in the community began to exhibit similar symptoms, including Ann Putnam Jr. , Mercy Lewis, Elizabeth Hubbard, Mary Walcott and Mary Warren.
● In late February, arrest warrants were issued for Reverend Parris’ slave, Tituba, along with two other women–the homeless beggar Sarah Good and the poor, elderly Sarah Osborn–whom the girls accused of bewitching them. ● The three accused witches were brought before the magistrates Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne and questioned. Their accusers (all young girls) appeared in the courtroom in a grand display of spasms, contortions, screaming and writhing.
• The girls who made accusations “contorted into grotesque poses, fell down into frozen postures, and complained of biting and pinching sensations. In a village where everyone believed that the devil was real, close at hand, and acted in the real world, the suspected affliction of the girls became an obsession” (Douglas Linder). • This evidence was called spectral evidence. • It was considered strong enough to convict a person of witchcraft.
● Though Good and Osborn denied their guilt (because they really weren’t witches), Tituba confessed (although she wasn’t a witch either). Likely seeking to save herself from certain conviction by acting as an informer, she claimed there were other witches acting alongside her in service of the devil against the Puritans. ● Hysteria spreads through the community ● A number of others were accused, including women regarded as upstanding members of church and community.
● Like Tituba, several accused “witches” confessed and named other people, and the trials soon began to overwhelm the local justice system. ● A group of young girls was responsible for many of the accusations. Because the girls were expected to be believers and followers of the Puritan worldview, many trusted that they were telling the truth when they accused people in their town of witch craft, especially since a conviction would result in execution of the accused. ● Community members believed that the girls were chosen by God to find and execute all of the witches in town. ● The girls gained power in a town that mostly denied power to young women. They became a major contributing part of the hysteria that ensued.
● 19 accused witches were hanged on Gallows Hill in 1692 ● 1 accused witch (or wizard as male witches were often called) was pressed to death when he failed to plead guilty or not guilty to charges of witchcraft. ● 4 other accused witches died in prison ● As many as 13 more may have died in prison
By September 1692, the hysteria had begun to abate and public opinion turned against the trials. 1. Doubts grow when respected citizens are convicted and executed: George Burroughs (recites Lord's Prayer perfectly at hanging) 2. Accusations of witchcraft include the powerful and well-connected including the wife of Governor Phips 3. The educated elite of Boston pressure Gov. Phips to exclude spectral evidence. 4. Mather points out the Devil could take the shape of an innocent person: "It were better that 10 suspected witches should escape than one innocent person should be condemned. " 5. Gov. Phips bars spectral evidence and disbands the Court
● Salem, Massachusetts ● Puritan community with strict Puritan worldview ● 1600’s ● Although the story is based on the historical events of the Salem, MA witch hunts, some of the characters and other pieces of information have been adjusted for dramatic effect.
● Group of girls caught dancing in woods with Tituba ● Among the group is the daughter of Reverend Parris and also the daughter of Thomas and Anne Putnam ● The two daughters feign sickness and possession ● Both families demand that the possessors be found and punished ● These parents believe there may be a witch living in town placing the girls under the devil’s spell. ● The girls don’t want to get in trouble, so they continue lying and continue accusing. ● Many people die.
Modern Witch could be a male or female and may exhibit some or all of these traits: ●Taps pencil on desk ●Wears close-toed shoes ●Might wiggle a foot ●Looks bored in class ●Stretches during a lecture ●Checks a text message on his/her phone ●Asks one or more question in class ●Takes notes too quickly or too slowly during the lecture ●Talks to a classmate sitting next to him or her ●Appears to be really grumpy or too happy ●Someone fanning themselves because he/she is too hot or someone who complains about being too cold
●On a small piece of paper, write the name of two people in class that you suspect are acting like witches. Then provide three pieces of evidence from the “Traits of a Modern Witch” slide that