1 RELATIONAL ALGEBRA Lecture 2 2 Relational Algebra

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1 RELATIONAL ALGEBRA Lecture 2

1 RELATIONAL ALGEBRA Lecture 2

2 Relational Algebra • Operations to manipulate relations. • Used to specify retrieval requests

2 Relational Algebra • Operations to manipulate relations. • Used to specify retrieval requests (queries). • Query results in the form of a relation -> this relation may be used

3 Theoretical expressions where both operands are relations The output from one operation can

3 Theoretical expressions where both operands are relations The output from one operation can become the input to another operation (nested relational algebra) Eight fundamental operations in relational algebra: Unary operations work on one relation Selection Projection Binary operations work on pairs of relations Cartesian product Join Union Intersection Set difference Division

4 Algebra Operators Selection Projection Cartesian Product a b c Union Intersection x y

4 Algebra Operators Selection Projection Cartesian Product a b c Union Intersection x y a a b b c c x y x y Join a 1 b 1 a 2 b 2 a 3 b 3 a 1 b 1 c 1 a 2 b 2 c 2 a 3 b 3 c 3 b 1 c 1 b 2 c 2 b 3 c 3 Divide Difference a a a b c x y z x y a

5 Selection Operation Return the tuples of R that satisfy a selection condition Denoted

5 Selection Operation Return the tuples of R that satisfy a selection condition Denoted by <selection condition>(R) Selection condition = can be one condition or more using AND / OR. Example: Select all staff with a salary greater than 10, 000 salary > 10000 (STAFF)

6 Selection Operation Staff. No FName LName Sex DOB Salary Brn. No SL 21

6 Selection Operation Staff. No FName LName Sex DOB Salary Brn. No SL 21 John White M 1 -Oct-45 SG 37 Ann Beech F 10 -Nov-60 12000 D 003 SG 14 David Ford M 24 -May-58 18000 D 003 SG 5 Susan Brand F 3 -Jun-40 salary > 10000 (STAFF) 30000 D 005 24000 D 003

7 Projection Operation Return the attributes of R Denoted by <attribute list>(R) Example: Produce

7 Projection Operation Return the attributes of R Denoted by <attribute list>(R) Example: Produce a list of salaries for all staff, showing only the staff number, first name, last name, and salary. sno, fname, lname, salary(STAFF)

8 Projection Operation SNo FName LName Salary SL 21 John White 30000 SG 37

8 Projection Operation SNo FName LName Salary SL 21 John White 30000 SG 37 Ann Beech 12000 SG 14 David Ford 18000 SA 9 Mary Howe 9000 SG 5 Susan Brand 24000 SL 41 Julie Lee 9000 sno, fname, lname, salary(STAFF)

9 Question Retrieve the names and salaries of employees who work in department 4.

9 Question Retrieve the names and salaries of employees who work in department 4. FNAME, LNAME, SALARY( DNO=4(EMPLOYEE)) OR R 1= DNO=4(EMPLOYEE) R 2= FNAME, LNAME, SALARY( R 1) You can rename the attributes of the resulted relation R 1= DNO=4(EMPLOYEE) R 2 (FIRSTNAME, LASTNAME, SALARY) = FNAME, LNAME, SALARY( R 1)

10 Set Operations • Binary operations • Union R S • Intersection R S

10 Set Operations • Binary operations • Union R S • Intersection R S • Difference R-S • Cartesian Product R x S Note: (union compatible): Dom ( Ai ε R )= Dom (Bi ε S) R, S must have the same number of attributes and same domain. The resulting relation has the same names as the first operand (R)

11 Union Operation Return a relation that includes all tuples that are either in

11 Union Operation Return a relation that includes all tuples that are either in R or in S, or in both R and S. Eliminate duplicate tuples. R & S must be union-compatible. Denoted by R S R R S S a b c a d f a b c d f

12 Union Operation Example: List all cities where there is either a branch office

12 Union Operation Example: List all cities where there is either a branch office or a property for rent. city(BRANCH) city(PROPERTY)

13 Union Operation PROPERTY Property. No Street City Post. Code Type Owner. No Brn.

13 Union Operation PROPERTY Property. No Street City Post. Code Type Owner. No Brn. No PA 14 Holheld PL 94 Argyll St London NW 2 Flat CO 87 B 001 PG 4 Lawrence Glasgow G 11 9 QX Flat CO 40 B 003 PG 36 Monar Glasgow G 32 4 QX Flat CO 93 B 003 PG 21 Novar Bristol House CO 87 B 003 Aberdeen. AB 7 5 SU House CO 46 G 12 B 001 City London Aberdeen BRANCH Brn. No Street City Post. Code B 001 Deer Rd London SW 1 4 EH B 002 Argyll St Aberdeen AB 2 3 SU B 003 Main St Glasgow G 11 9 QX Glasgow Bristol city(BRANCH) city(PROPERTY)

14 Intersection Operation Return a relation that includes all tuples that are in both

14 Intersection Operation Return a relation that includes all tuples that are in both R and S. R & S must be union-compatible. Denoted by R S R a b c R S S a d f a

15 Intersection Operation Example: List all cities where there is a branch office and

15 Intersection Operation Example: List all cities where there is a branch office and at least one property for rent. city(BRANCH) city(PROPERTY)

16 Intersection Operation PROPERTY Property. No Street City Post. Code Type Owner. No Brn.

16 Intersection Operation PROPERTY Property. No Street City Post. Code Type Owner. No Brn. No PA 14 Holheld PL 94 Argyll St London NW 2 Flat CO 87 B 001 PG 4 Lawrence Glasgow G 11 9 QX Flat CO 40 B 003 PG 36 Monar Glasgow G 32 4 QX Flat CO 93 B 003 PG 21 Novar Bristol House CO 87 B 003 Aberdeen. AB 7 5 SU House CO 46 G 12 B 001 City London BRANCH Brn. No Street Aberdeen City Post. Code B 001 Deer Rd London SW 1 4 EH B 002 Argyll St Aberdeen AB 2 3 SU B 003 Main St Glasgow G 11 9 QX Glasgow city(BRANCH) city(PROPERTY)

17 Difference Operation Return a relation that includes all tuples that are in R

17 Difference Operation Return a relation that includes all tuples that are in R but NOT in S. R & S must be union-compatible. Denoted by R-S R R-S S a b c a d f b c

18 Difference Operation Example: List all cities where there is a property for rent

18 Difference Operation Example: List all cities where there is a property for rent but no branch office. city(PROPERTY) - city(BRANCH)

19 Difference Operation PROPERTY Property. No Street City Post. Code Type Owner. No Brn.

19 Difference Operation PROPERTY Property. No Street City Post. Code Type Owner. No Brn. No PA 14 Holheld PL 94 Argyll St London NW 2 Flat CO 87 B 001 PG 4 Lawrence Glasgow G 11 9 QX Flat CO 40 B 003 PG 36 Monar Glasgow G 32 4 QX Flat CO 93 B 003 PG 21 Novar Bristol House CO 87 B 003 Aberdeen. AB 7 5 SU House CO 46 G 12 B 001 City Bristol BRANCH Brn. No Street City Post. Code B 001 Deer Rd London SW 1 4 EH B 002 Argyll St Aberdeen AB 2 3 SU B 003 Main St Glasgow G 11 9 QX city(PROPERTY) - city(BRANCH)

20 Cartesian Product Operation Return a relation that is the concatenation of tuples from

20 Cartesian Product Operation Return a relation that is the concatenation of tuples from two relations R & S Denoted by RXS {a, b} X {1, 2, 3} = {(a, 1), (a, 2), (a, 3), (b, 1), (b, 2), (b, 3)} Cartesian Product is meaningless on its own , it can combine related tuples from two relations if followed by the appropriate SELECT operation.

21 Cartesian Product Operation Example: List the names and comments of all clients who

21 Cartesian Product Operation Example: List the names and comments of all clients who viewed a property. Step 1: Cartesian product Client. No, Fname, Lname (CLIENT) X Client. No, Prprty. No, Comment(VIEW) Client. No, Fname, Lname, View. Client. No, Prprty. No, Comment (CLIENT X VIEW) Step 2: Selection Client. No=View. Client. No( Client. No, Comment(VIEW) ) Fname, Lname (CLIENT) X Client. No, Prprty. No,

22 Cartesian Product Operation CLIENT Client. No FName LName Tel. No CR 76 John

22 Cartesian Product Operation CLIENT Client. No FName LName Tel. No CR 76 John Kay CO 56 Aline Stewart 141 -848 -1825 CR 74 Mike Ritchie 1475 -392178 CR 62 Mary Tregear 1224 -196720 207 -774 -5632 Cardinality = 4 Tuples Degree = 3 Attributes (projected) VIEW Client. No Prprty. No View. Date Comment CR 56 PA 14 24 -May-01 Too small CR 76 PG 4 20 -Apr-01 Too remote CR 56 PG 4 26 -May-01 CR 62 PA 14 14 -May-01 No dining room CR 56 PG 36 28 -Apr-01 Cardinality = 5 Tuples Degree = 3 Attributes (projected)

23 Client. No, Fname, Lname (CLIENT) X client. No, Property. No, comment(VIEW)) Client. View.

23 Client. No, Fname, Lname (CLIENT) X client. No, Property. No, comment(VIEW)) Client. View. FName LName Client. No Prprty. No CR 76 CR 76 CR 56 CR 74 CR 74 CR 62 CR 62 John John Aline Mike Mike Mary Mary Kay Kay Kay Stewart Ritchie Ritchie Tregear Tregear CR 56 CR 76 CR 56 CR 62 CR 56 PA 14 PG 4 PG 4 PA 14 PG 36 Comment Too small Too remote No dining room Cardinality = 5 * 4 = 20 Tuples Degree = 3 + 3 = 6 Attributes

24 Join Operation Return a relation that is the concatenation of tuples from two

24 Join Operation Return a relation that is the concatenation of tuples from two relations R & S that satisfy a certain condition Form of join operation: - Theta join - Equijoin - Natural join - Outer join

25 JOIN THETA JOIN EQUIJOIN (INNER JOIN) NATURAL JOIN OUTER JOIN * Similar to

25 JOIN THETA JOIN EQUIJOIN (INNER JOIN) NATURAL JOIN OUTER JOIN * Similar to CP followed by Select. The condition is called join condition (>, <, = …. ) The join condition contains one or more equality conditions. Could be redundant) ( Contains one or more equality conditions With no redundancy If there are no matching tuples in S that matches R then the NULL is shown

26 OUTER JOIN R 1 , R 2 LEFT OUTER JOIN Shows all R

26 OUTER JOIN R 1 , R 2 LEFT OUTER JOIN Shows all R 1 tuples RIGHT OUTER JOIN Shows all R 2 tuples FULL OUTER JOIN Shows all R 1, R 2 tuples

Theta join Operation 27 Return a relation that includes all tuples that satisfy the

Theta join Operation 27 Return a relation that includes all tuples that satisfy the logical condition F from the Cartesian product of R & S. Logical operators ( ) Denoted by R F S= F (R X S)

Theta join Operation 28 CLIENT(Client. No, FName, Lname, Tel. No) VIEW(Client. No, Property. No,

Theta join Operation 28 CLIENT(Client. No, FName, Lname, Tel. No) VIEW(Client. No, Property. No, View. Date, Comment) Example: List the names and comments of all renters who have viewed a property. Client. No, Fname, Lname, View. Client. No, Prprty. No, Comment (CLIENT Client. No=View. Client. No VIEW) Alternative: Client. No=View. Client. No( Client. No, Fname, Lname (CLIENT) X Client. No, Prprty. No, Comment(VIEW))

29 Equijoin Operation A Theta join where the logical condition is equality (=). Example:

29 Equijoin Operation A Theta join where the logical condition is equality (=). Example: List the names and comments of all renters who have viewed a property. Client. No, Fname, Lname, View. Client. No, Prprty. No, Comment (CLIENT Client. No=View. Client. No VIEW)

30 Client. No, Fname, Lname (CLIENT) X client. No, Property. No, comment (VIEW)) Client.

30 Client. No, Fname, Lname (CLIENT) X client. No, Property. No, comment (VIEW)) Client. View. FName LName Client. No Prprty. No CR 76 CR 76 CR 56 CR 74 CR 74 CR 62 CR 62 John John Aline Mike Mike Mary Mary Kay Kay Kay Stewart Ritchie Ritchie Tregear Tregear CR 56 CR 76 CR 56 CR 62 CR 56 PA 14 PG 4 PG 4 PA 14 PG 36 Comment Too small Too remote No dining room

31 Equijoin Operation Client. No=View. Client. No( Client. No, Fname, Lname (CLIENT) X Client.

31 Equijoin Operation Client. No=View. Client. No( Client. No, Fname, Lname (CLIENT) X Client. No, Prprty. No, Comment(VIE Client. View. FName LName Client. No Prprty. No CR 76 John Kay CR 56 Aline Stewart CR 62 Mary Tregear CR 76 CR 56 PG 4 PA 14 CR 56 PG 4 CR 62 PA 14 Comment Too remote Too small No dining room

32 Natural join Operation Equijoin of two relation R & S over all common

32 Natural join Operation Equijoin of two relation R & S over all common attributes and values. One occurrence of each common attribute is eliminated from the result Denoted by R * (A ε R), (B ε S) S Example: Retrieve each EMPLOYEE’s name and the name of department he/she belongs to: T RESULT EMPLOYEE * (DNO), (DUNMBER) DEPARTMENT π FNAME, LNAME, DNAME (T)

33 Natural join Operation • Invariably the JOIN involves an equality test, test and

33 Natural join Operation • Invariably the JOIN involves an equality test, test and thus is often described as an equi-join. Such joins result in two attributes in the resulting relation having exactly the same value. A `natural join' will remove the duplicate attribute(s). • If you do use natural joins make sure that the relations do not have two attributes with the same name by accident.

34 Outer join Operation A natural join in which tuples from R that do

34 Outer join Operation A natural join in which tuples from R that do not have matching values in the common attributes of S are included in the result relation. Missing values in S are set to null. Denoted by R S Example: Produce a status report on property viewings. ( Property. No, Street, City, CLient. No, View. Date, Comment (PROPERTY) VIEW)

35 Outer Join Operation PROPERTY Property. No Street City Post. Code Type Owner. No

35 Outer Join Operation PROPERTY Property. No Street City Post. Code Type Owner. No PA 14 Holheld PL 94 Argyll St London NW 2 Flat CO 87 PG 4 Lawrence Glasgow G 11 9 QX Flat CO 40 PG 36 Monar Glasgow G 32 4 QX Flat CO 93 PG 21 Novar Bristol VIEW Client. No Prprty. No View. Date Aberdeen. AB 7 5 SU House CO 46 G 12 House CO 87 Comment CR 56 PA 14 24 -May-01 Too small CR 76 PG 4 20 -Apr-01 Too remote CR 56 PG 4 26 -May-01 CR 62 PA 14 14 -May-01 No dining room

36 Outer Join Operation Property. No, Street, City, CLient. No, View. Date, Comment (PROPERTY)

36 Outer Join Operation Property. No, Street, City, CLient. No, View. Date, Comment (PROPERTY) Property. No Street City Client. No VIEW View. Date Comment PA 14 Holheld Aberdeen CR 56 24 -May-01 Too small PA 14 Holheld Aberdeen CR 62 14 -May-01 No dining room PL 94 Argyll St PG 4 Lawrence Glasgow CR 76 PG 4 PG 36 Lawrence Glasgow CR 56 Monar Glasgow null PG 21 Novar London Bristol null 20 -Apr-01 Too remote null 26 -May-01 null

37 MORE EXAMPLES

37 MORE EXAMPLES

38 UNION Example

38 UNION Example

39 INTERSECTION Example

39 INTERSECTION Example

40 DIFFERENCE Example

40 DIFFERENCE Example

41 CARTESIAN PRODUCT example

41 CARTESIAN PRODUCT example

42 JOIN Example

42 JOIN Example

43 OUTER JOIN example 1

43 OUTER JOIN example 1

44 OUTER JOIN example 2

44 OUTER JOIN example 2

45 ADDITIONAL RELATIONAL FUNCTIONS

45 ADDITIONAL RELATIONAL FUNCTIONS

46 Aggregate Functions 1. SUM : returns the sum of the values in a

46 Aggregate Functions 1. SUM : returns the sum of the values in a 2. 3. 4. 5. specified attribute. COUNT: returns the number of tuples in a specified attribute. AVERAGE: returns the average of the values in a specified attribute. MIN: returns the smallest value in a specified attribute. MAX: returns the largest value in a specified attribute.

47 Examples EMPLOYEE NR Name Salary Department 1 John 100 A 5 Sara 300

47 Examples EMPLOYEE NR Name Salary Department 1 John 100 A 5 Sara 300 C 7 Tom 100 A null C 12 Annie

48 1 - SUM Find the total of the employees salary • R SUM(SALARY)

48 1 - SUM Find the total of the employees salary • R SUM(SALARY) (EMPLOYEE) • The result is sum= 500 select sum(salary) from EMPLOYEE Note: • Duplicates are not eliminated. • Null values are ignored.

49 2 - COUNT Count all the empolyees who get a salary • R

49 2 - COUNT Count all the empolyees who get a salary • R count(salary) (EMPLOYEE) • The result is count=3 select count(salary) from EMPLOYEE

50 3 - AVERAGE Retrieve the average of the employees’ salaries. • R AVG(

50 3 - AVERAGE Retrieve the average of the employees’ salaries. • R AVG( SALARY) (EMPLOYEE) Select avg(salary) from EMPLOYEE

51 4 - MIN Retrieve the minimum salary among all employees. • R MIN

51 4 - MIN Retrieve the minimum salary among all employees. • R MIN (SALARY) (EMPLOYEE) • The result is min= 100

52 5 - MAX Retrieve the maximum salary among all employees. • R MAX(

52 5 - MAX Retrieve the maximum salary among all employees. • R MAX( SALARY) (EMPLOYEE) • The result is max= 300

53 Rename Operation • Allows us to name, and therefore to refer to, the

53 Rename Operation • Allows us to name, and therefore to refer to, the results of relational-algebra expressions. • Allows us to refer to a relation by more than one name. Example: X (E) returns the expression E under the name X If a relational-algebra expression E has arity n, then (A 1, A 2, …, An) (E) returns the result of expression E under the name X, and with the attributes renamed to A 1, A 2, …. , An.

54 Rename Operation (DNO, NOEMPS, AVGSAL) DNO • DNO is the grouping attribute COUNT

54 Rename Operation (DNO, NOEMPS, AVGSAL) DNO • DNO is the grouping attribute COUNT (SSN), AVG( SALARY) (EMPLOYEE)

Summary of Relational Algebra Operations Operation Selection Projection Union Difference Intersection Cartesian Product Theta

Summary of Relational Algebra Operations Operation Selection Projection Union Difference Intersection Cartesian Product Theta join Equijoin Natural join Outer join Rename Aggregate Function Notation <selection condition>(R) <attribute list>(R) R S R-S R S RXS R FS R* S R S 55

56 Quick Quiz

56 Quick Quiz

57 Question#1: Section. No Dep. No Student. NO FName LName Sex 435204043 Noura Ahmed

57 Question#1: Section. No Dep. No Student. NO FName LName Sex 435204043 Noura Ahmed F 1 -Oct-45 435204044 Maha F 10 -Nov-60 12000 D 003 436204044 Danah Fahad F 24 -May-58 18000 D 003 437204044 Susan F 3 -Jun-40 Ali DOB 30000 D 005 24000 D 003 Produce a list of students, showing Student ID and First Names Only. Question#2: R S A. R Difference S (R-S)? B. R Join R. Col. A=S. SCol. A S