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1 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

1 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

2 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

2 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

A temperature problem Touch a piece of metal and a piece of wood at

A temperature problem Touch a piece of metal and a piece of wood at the same temperature. Which material feels warmer and why? The metal feels cold and the wood feels warm. Metal is a good conductor and conducts the heat away from your hands, so it feels cold. Wood is not a good conductor and does not conduct the heat away from your hands as well as the metal, so the wood feels warmer than the metal. 3 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

What are thermal insulators? Some materials are very poor conductors of heat. These are

What are thermal insulators? Some materials are very poor conductors of heat. These are called thermal insulators. Examples of materials that are insulators include plastics, wood, ceramics and air. Air becomes a very effective insulator when it is trapped and stopped from moving. This is how your clothes keep you warm – air is trapped between the fibres and so acts as an insulator. Other insulating materials, including polystyrene and loft insulation, use trapped air because it is so effective. 4 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Charlie the Chef and his frozen chicken! Charlie forgot to take the chicken out

Charlie the Chef and his frozen chicken! Charlie forgot to take the chicken out of the freezer last night! Will his plan to defrost the chicken in time for lunch work? 5 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

How does a vacuum flask work? How is a vacuum flask able to keep

How does a vacuum flask work? How is a vacuum flask able to keep hot drinks hot and cold drinks cold? 2. The plastic (or cork) lid is an insulator and the screw top prevents convection currents escaping from the flask. 1. There is a vacuum between two layers of glass or steel, which prevents heat leaving or entering by conduction. 3. The walls have silvery surfaces, which prevent heat leaving or entering by radiation. ` 6 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

7 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

7 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Heat loss from houses A thermogram shows the distribution of heat over the surface

Heat loss from houses A thermogram shows the distribution of heat over the surface of a house. It highlights where heat is being lost. The white, yellow and red areas are the warmest, so these are the worst insulated parts of the house. The blue and green areas are the coolest, so these are the best insulated parts of the house. A poorly insulated house loses more energy and so costs more to heat. It also means that more pollution, particularly carbon dioxide, is created in order to heat the house. 8 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Heat loss from houses Where is the most heat lost from a poorly insulated

Heat loss from houses Where is the most heat lost from a poorly insulated house? roof 20% windows 12% walls 36% doors 4% floor 28% 9 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

How can heat loss be reduced? Various types of insulation can prevent the loss

How can heat loss be reduced? Various types of insulation can prevent the loss of heat energy from a house. Use the following slides to complete this table showing how different types of insulation can prevent loss of heat energy from a house. Type of insulation 10 of 30 Type of heat transfer stopped How insulation stops heat transfer © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Can heat loss through windows be reduced? A lot of heat energy can be

Can heat loss through windows be reduced? A lot of heat energy can be lost through windows. Double glazing adds an extra pane of glass. The air trapped between the two panes acts as an insulator and reduces heat loss by conduction. The insulating effect of the gap can be improved by removing the air and creating a vacuum. insulating layer of air side-view of double glazing The problems with double glazing are that it can be expensive and that it is difficult to break in emergencies without a special hammer. 11 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

How can heat loss through walls be reduced? Most outside walls have an empty

How can heat loss through walls be reduced? Most outside walls have an empty space between the two layers of bricks called a cavity. The air trapped in the cavity acts as an insulator and reduces any heat loss due to conduction through the bricks. Heat loss can also occur due to convection within the cavity. Plastic foam insulation can be pumped into the cavity to prevent this. 12 of 30 convection currents in the cavity foam insulation prevents convection currents © Boardworks Ltd 2006

How can heat loss through a roof be reduced? The air warmed by radiators

How can heat loss through a roof be reduced? The air warmed by radiators (and other heaters) is carried around a house by convection currents. heat loss The house becomes heated but, if there is no roof insulation, the warm air continues to rise. The heat eventually escapes through the roof and is lost due to conduction through the roof tiles. loft insulation Loft insulation contains trapped air and so forms an insulating layer between the loft and the rest of the house. This helps to reduce heat loss through the roof. 13 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

How can heat loss from radiators be reduced? A radiator produces infrared radiation. Some

How can heat loss from radiators be reduced? A radiator produces infrared radiation. Some of this heat energy is absorbed by the wall that the radiator is attached to, and so the wall heats up. This can be a real problem on outside walls, where the heat energy absorbed by the wall can escape from the house. Heat loss from a radiator can be reduced by placing shiny foil between the wall and the radiator. The foil prevents heat radiation from reaching the wall by reflecting it back into the room. This method of insulation is very cheap to install. 14 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

How can heat loss through doors be reduced? A draught is the movement of

How can heat loss through doors be reduced? A draught is the movement of air due to a convection current. A lot of heat energy can be lost from a house due to draughts escaping through gaps under doors and around windows. This is one of the easiest types of heat loss to prevent. Draught excluders are hairy or spongy strips that can be used to close the gaps around doors and windows. They prevent draughts escaping and so reduce heat loss. 15 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

How can curtains reduce heat loss? A draught is the movement of air due

How can curtains reduce heat loss? A draught is the movement of air due to a convection current. Warm air rises and is carried up towards the windows in a house by convection currents. This heat energy can escape through gaps around windows that are uncovered. Fitting curtains and closing them can prevent draughts leaving a house and so reduce heat loss. In addition, curtains are opaque and so radiated heat does not pass through them. 16 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

How does insulation affect heat loss? 17 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

How does insulation affect heat loss? 17 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Insulation and heat loss – true or false? 18 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd

Insulation and heat loss – true or false? 18 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

How does double glazing work? How does double glazing keep a house warmer? Double

How does double glazing work? How does double glazing keep a house warmer? Double glazing keeps a house warmer because ir there is a layer of a__ between the panes of glass. Air is a poor c____, onductor so it acts as an i_______. nsulator side-view of double glazing 19 of 30 The trapped air r_______ educes heat loss by c_____ onduction from a house. © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Insulation and heat transfer 20 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Insulation and heat transfer 20 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

21 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

21 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

What is payback time? Payback time is the time it takes for the cost

What is payback time? Payback time is the time it takes for the cost of installing insulation to be equalled by the savings made from reduced energy costs. payback time (in years) = cost of insulation saving each year Example: Adding silver reflectors behind radiators costs £ 25 and saves £ 50 per year. payback time = 25 50 = 0. 5 years (6 months) 22 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Calculating payback time What is the payback time for these types of insulation? How

Calculating payback time What is the payback time for these types of insulation? How heat escapes Cost of heat escaping per year Cost of insulation Payback time roof £ 80 £ 240 3 years windows £ 40 £ 3, 200 80 years draughts £ 50 1 year walls £ 100 £ 500 5 years Why is double glazing popular if the payback time is so long? 23 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Which insulation is most cost-effective? Cost-effectiveness is a comparison of the annual savings in

Which insulation is most cost-effective? Cost-effectiveness is a comparison of the annual savings in reduced energy bills and the cost of insulation. Cost-effectiveness = saving each year cost of insulation Example 2: Example 1: Adding silver reflectors behind Adding draught excluders radiators costs £ 25 and saves costs £ 50 and saves £ 50 per year. Cost-effectiveness = 50/25 =2 Cost-effectiveness = 50/50 =1 So, the reflectors are more cost-effective than the draught excluders. 24 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Calculating cost-effectiveness 25 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Calculating cost-effectiveness 25 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

26 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

26 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Glossary (1/2) l cavity wall – A wall made up of two layers of

Glossary (1/2) l cavity wall – A wall made up of two layers of bricks with an air gap between them, which reduces heat lost by conduction. l cavity wall insulation – Plastic foam insulation that is pumped into the gap in a cavity wall to prevent heat lost due to convection in the cavity. l cost-effectiveness – A comparison of the annual savings in reduced energy bills and the cost of insulation. l double glazing – Two panes of glass with an air gap between them, which reduces heat lost by conduction. The air can be sucked out of the gap to create a vacuum. l draught excluder – A hairy or spongy strip that prevents draughts escaping through the gaps around doors and windows, and so reduces heat loss. 27 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Glossary (2/2) l loft insulation – A material which contains trapped air and helps

Glossary (2/2) l loft insulation – A material which contains trapped air and helps to reduce heat lost through the roof of a house. l insulator – A material that is a very poor conductor of heat and so can be used to reduce heat loss. l payback time – The time it takes for the cost of insulation to be equalled by the savings from reduced energy bills. l vacuum flask – A vacuum flask is a bottle with double walls separated by a vacuum. It reduces heat transfer and so keeps warm drinks warm and cold drinks cold. 28 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Anagrams 29 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Anagrams 29 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Multiple-choice quiz 30 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

Multiple-choice quiz 30 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006