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1 Fish – 2 Fish – Red Fish - Build-a-Fish Drill: What structures make fish so awesome? ! Agnatha… Chondrichthyes… Osteichthyes… Outcome: Review fish classes and take a quiz on fishes. Complete Part 1 of your Build-A-Fish Project
Build-A-Fish Part 1!! STEP I: BRAINSTORM Focus on diversity, sizes, shapes and colors. REMEMBER FORM and FUNCTION. WHY do all the species of fish look so different? INVESTIGATION Research anatomical features, form and function etc. to review and learn what features make a fish adapted to a particular habitat, diet and lifestyle. DESIGN Create a rough draft of your new fish. Use your imagination AND your knowledge of fish anatomy, form and function.
Build-A-Fish Part 2 BUILDING Building your fish… which can be done at home, but if needed to be in the classroom you should have started already!!! WRITING You must neatly write or type, in complete sentences, a 1 page write up/summary of your fish. In ALL of the following information: * Name your fish. The name should have relevance to the fishes anatomical features or habitat * Describe your fishes habitat Depth/ocean zone / Amount of sunlight (photic/aphotic/twilight) Coral reef/sandy bottom/open Ocean (be sure this matches it’s features) * Describe the fishes colors and patterns and how that is an advantage or adaptation * Describe the fishes shape and size and location of it’s mouth. It’s diet and it’s feeding strategy * Describe the body shape and size. It’s fins. Describe how these structures relate to the swimming style and speed, feeding strategy, lifestyle/niche. * Describe any additional special features or adaptations that you have given your fish. Be specific and relate the features to adaptations.
May 1 st, 2017: Marine Mammals Outcome: To understand the difference between marine fish and marine mammals by exploring the sea otters, pinnipeds, sirenians, and cetaceans. Drill: Create a list of some marine mammals. Sea otters Seals Walruses Dugongs Manatees Whales Dolphins Porpoises
Fish versus Marine Mammals What are some of the differences between fish and aquatic mammals?
Sea Otters Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Carnivora
Sea Otters Found along California coast Lack blubber – thick fur with air layer Lay upon backs and float while eating- use tools Fin like hind legs Constantly eat to stay warm Key stone species!!! Protected by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA)
Pinnipeds: Seals, Sea Lions, & Walruses Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Suborder Pinnipedia
Pinnepeds There are three families of pinnepeds: Family Phocidae – earless or true seals (phocids) This Family includes crabeater, leopard, and elephant seals Otariidae – the eared seals includes furred seals and sea lions Odobenidae – walruses
Earless Seals or Phocids: Have no external ear flaps. Swim with their hind flippers. Their hind flippers always face backward and are furred. Can be found in both marine and freshwater environments. Leopard Seal • Leopard Seals in specific are the only Phocids to eat homeothermic prey
Eared Seals – Fur Seals, Sea Lions Have external ear flaps. Swim with their front flippers. Unlike earless seals, their hind flippers can turn forward, and they are better able to “walk” on their flippers. Found only in marine environments. Sea lions are renowned for their intelligence, their friendly/social behaviors, and their playfulness.
Walruses Morphologically, the walrus is more similar to the phocidae, true seals, except they have tusks (males). Behaviorally, they more closely resemble the Otariidae, eared seals. Walruses are very sociable animals and love interacting with others.
Walruses • Dominant bulls run harems of females and will fight to keep their standing • Once hunted for their ivory tusks, but now are protected. • Only natives may kill them for food
Sirens – Dugongs and Manatees Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Sirenia Family: Dugongidae �Kingdom: Animalia �Phylum: Chordata �Class: Mammalia �Order: Sirenia �Family: Trichechidae
Sirens - Dugongs Dugongidae – Dugongs Live in coastal marine waters Feed on sea grasses Now protected from hunters, but not from natives
Sirens - Manatee Trichechidae – Manatees Live in both the sea and inland rivers and lakes Feed on sea grasses Biggest threat… boats!
Dugong vs Manatee Dugong: Larger head Mouth on bottom Smaller flippers Notched tail �Manatee: �Smaller head �Mouth frontward �Larger flippers �Rounded tail
Marine Mammal Worksheet Part 1 You will work on the back of the worksheet from last class. You can use your notes or your book to answer questions 7 -11 and 13 -15 When done turn in the worksheet in the turn in bin Next class we will talk about whales and prepare for your dissection Dissection will be on Nov 5 th (this is a Monday… dress appropriately)!
rd 3 May and Marine Mammals: Cetaceans Drill: What are some unique features that whales have? th 4
Cetacea – Whales & their relatives The classification of whales are: Kingdom Phylum Class Animalia Chordata Mammalia Order Cetacea
Cetacean Evolution (p 285) Nose holes on front of face migrate to create blowhole Four limbs in developmental stage (image) Skeletal structure connects them to land animals Inner ear blocked with wax Countercurrent blood flow in flippers Blubber layer to retain heat Few hairs on head
Cetacea: Whales There are two broad categories of whales: Baleen Whale Suborder Mysticeti Toothed Whale Suborder Odontoceti
Mysticeti: Baleen Whales practice filter feeding and the tools for filter feeding are their baleen plates Consume fish, krill, and plankton Ventral groove/pleats allow them to expand their throat Larger but eat smaller prey
Odontoceti: Toothed Whales Almost 90% of cetaceans are toothed whales Smaller than baleen whales but eat larger prey Sperm Whales, Beluga Whales, Narwhal, Orcas, Dolphins and Porpoises Sperm Whale: Teeth only on bottom, fit into upper grooves Orca/Dolphin/Porpoise: 100 -200 teeth, fused into jaw Beluga Whale: Few teeth, sometimes only two per jaw Narwhal: Two teeth, left tooth, grows into tusk in front
Toothed Whales: Sperm Whales Third largest behind Blue and Fin whales Bottom teeth fit into grooves in the top of the mouth Feed on squid, fish, and sometimes attack whalers on small boats Smaller but eat larger prey Portrayed in the book Moby Dick by Herman Melville
Toothed Whales: Narwhals Related to the Beluga whales Lives in the Arctic Seas Only have two upper incisors, which in males turns into the large front tusk Females teeth are undeveloped in their skull Tusks are thought to be for status in a pod, but it has 10 mil nerve connections (salinity/temp)
Toothed Whales: Beluga Whale • Live in northern polar seas and on occasion go into the Arctic Rivers • Stay in small family group and eat crabs, cuttlefish, and flounder • They are distinct due to their white color skin, which they “shed” in the 2 week warm period
Toothed Whales: Orca Largest of the dolphin family, Delphinidae Size is close to that of a school bus Only cetaceans to feed on homeothermic prey Common to the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans
Dolphin versus Porpoise Dolphins and porpoises appear similar, but they have many differences. Dolphins Porpoises
Dolphin Communication: Echolocation Communicate with clicks called echolocation Sound waves bounce off of prey, predators, or other objects An organ called the melon relays the message to the brain to be processed
Polar Bears Polar bears hunt on land/ice for seals They wait around air hole for them to breathe They also can find them under the snow by scent To maintain body heat they have clear fur so their skin can absorb the suns heat If it gets too cold they bury themselves under snow
Completing your worksheet on Marine Reptiles, Birds and Mammals You have the remaining questions on the worksheet you have been working on the last two class periods (# 12 and #16 -19) With your remaining class time we will be giving you the review sheet for your Unit 3 assessment on Tuesday May 9 th and Wednesday May 10 th. PLEASE FINISH YOUR BUILD A FISH AS SOON AS POSSIBLE!!!!