# 01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking abstractly thinking ahead thinking

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01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking abstractly, thinking ahead, thinking procedurally, thinking logically & thinking concurrently 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking How to use this resource Presenting these exercises as a Power. Point presentation allows you to use the resource in a variety of ways: • Projecting the exercise from the front of the class as a starter/plenary activity. • Printing out 3/6 slides per page to use as revision cards or a paired activity. • Carousel activity with different groups looking at different scenarios, moving between groups, adding more ideas. Show the students the scenario. Using the computational thinking placemat as a handy reference. Students complete the activity on the card. The second slide in each scenario shows a typical answer. This is not exhaustive, and students may be able to elaborate further, beyond the points raised. The teacher can also pose follow up questions, with reference to the placemat to aid revision, e. g. “what are the advantages of this approach? ”

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking abstractly 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Lunar outpost Scientists at NASA are considering using the moon as a base for manned exploration of the solar system. There are many advantages to launching spacecraft from the moon rather than Earth. In order to decide a suitable place for the lunar outpost, scientists think abstractly and use visualisation. Explore http: //www. google. co. uk/moon/ Using suitable screen shots of “Apollo”, “Elevation”, and “Charts” illustrate how scientists can think abstractly to determine a suitable location for a lunar outpost. Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking abstractly 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Lunar outpost Possible answers to the challenge: • • • Icon of astronaut shows previous moon landing sites. Number label shows previous moon landing sites. Elevation shows height of terrain using colour. Labels with codes show the type of terrain, e. g. Ci = intrusive rock. Features and areas of the lunar surface are named. Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking logically 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Air France flight 447 On 1 st June 2009, Air France flight 447 left Rio de Janeiro heading to Paris. It was a routine international flight. In the early hours of the morning, over the Atlantic Ocean, contact was lost, and the aeroplane vanished. On investigation, the plane showed signs of a high-speed impact with water as the nose cone was flattened. This ruled out a bomb or structural break-up. It was determined that the plane crashed into the water due to pilot error. The plane flew through a thunderstorm. Other aeroplanes had diverted that night, as is standard practice in bad weather. The pitot tubes (speed sensors) had frozen over as a result. This caused the autopilot to switch off and incorrect readings to be sent to the cockpit. This is expected behaviour, and pilots are trained to recognise this. Believing that the plane was losing altitude, the pilot pulled back on the stick to raise the nose, in an attempt to gain height. The instruments continued to show the plane falling. If an aircraft’s nose is pointed up too far, it loses speed, causing the engines to stall. The correct action is to point the nose down, gaining speed, before levelling off. With the aid of a flowchart, show logical thinking could have avoided this accident. Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking logically 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Air France flight 447 Losing altitude? No Flowchart can be extended to include levelling off after pointing the nose up/down, so it does not crash! Yes Point nose up Is there a thunderstorm ahead? Yes No Divert plane to new heading to avoid storm Continue current course Is the plane stalling? No Yes Point nose down Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking procedurally and concurrently 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Cup of coffee Consider how a typical instant cup of coffee with milk and sugar is made. Think procedurally to break this process down into a number of smaller sub-problems. Think concurrently to identify which processes can be done simultaneously. Outline the reasons why some of the processes can and should be done concurrently, and those that can’t. Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking procedurally and concurrently 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Cup of coffee Prepare water Students could also supply in the form of a flow diagram showing choices and decisions such as “Add Milk? ” or “Add Sugar? ” Prepare cup Add water to kettle Add coffee to cup Boil water Add sugar to cup Add water to cup Add milk to cup Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Try to tease out the idea of thinking concurrently. In this example it is clear that the cup of coffee with sugar and milk can be prepared while waiting for the water to boil. Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking abstractly, thinking ahead and thinking logically 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Taxi driver A taxi driver uses his experience, a GPS navigation system and radio tuned to traffic information to work out how to get passengers from A to B. In what ways is the taxi driver able to: • Think abstractly • Think ahead • Think logically Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking abstractly, thinking ahead and thinking logically 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Taxi driver Possible answers to the challenge: • Thinking abstractly: using road names, road labels, traffic indicators, speed indicator, estimated arrival time on his GPS system to filter appropriate information. Awareness of black spots from accident data. • Thinking ahead: making sure there is enough fuel, planning a route to avoid closed roads. • Thinking logically: making decisions when arriving at a junction/crossroads to take a correct turning, making decisions based on traffic ahead. Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking ahead 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking New Horizons In July 2015, New Horizons, a space probe completed a fly-by of the dwarf planet, Pluto. In order for the mission to be a success, the team at NASA had to think ahead considerably in preparation for the mission before it launched in 2006. Research this mission, and compile a list of ways in which NASA had to think ahead. Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking ahead 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking New Horizons Possible answers to the challenge: Calculating how long it would take to reach Pluto Calculating where Pluto would be in it’s orbit for successful arrival. Calculating the necessary speed, and gravitational assists required to reach the destination at the correct time. Planning for trajectory corrections, and having sufficient fuel. Planning what scientific instruments would be needed/could be carried/could be built in the timescales. Planning how to communicate with a probe with a 4 ½ hour time delay, when it can only do either scientific observation or communication at one time due to orientation. • Planning for potential unknowns, e. g. trajectory to collide with unknown moon/ice debris. • Whether this is a flyby or orbit mission. Flyby reduces the time available for scientific data to be gathered, but requires less fuel and therefore, less weight. • Possible further missions to Kuiper Belt objects. • • • Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking ahead, procedurally and concurrently 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Building a house Constructing a house is a complicated process. Lots of components have to be considered, and certain tasks can’t be tackled unless others have been started or finished. Yet thousands of new homes are constructed every year. Consider the process of building a new house and break down the process into a number of smaller problems and subproblems. When working out how to break down the problem it will help to think carefully about the order of events which will take place during a houses construction. Also consider which things could be done concurrently (e. g. at the same time) in order to make the process of constructing the house as quick as possible. Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking ahead, procedurally and concurrently 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Building a house Build a house Creating foundations Dig out ground Place footings Build foundation walls Construct exterior Build walls Windows & Doors Construct internal Build roof Lay floor Roof beams Internal walls Tile roof Ceilings Guttering Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking ahead, procedurally and concurrently 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Jake & Jill's weekly food shop Jake and Jill are quite fed up of how long they spend in the supermarket each week doing their weekly food shop. They decide what they want when they are actually walking around the supermarket and they often have to go back multiple times in the week as they run out of items. This method of shopping is also resulting in a very expensive total weekly shopping bill! How could they use the principles of computational thinking to make their weekly shopping experience as efficient as possible. There overall aims are to: • Spend as little time as possible in the supermarket each week • Save as much money as possible Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking ahead, procedurally and concurrently 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Jake & Jill's weekly food shop Thinking Ahead: • Plan out their meals for the week ahead of time • Make a shopping list of all the items they need for their meals Thinking Procedurally: • Writing out the shopping list in the order of the supermarket isles Thinking Concurrently: • Speeding up the shop by taking half the shopping list each • Splitting up and using two checkouts • One person parking the car while the other starts the shop Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking logically 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Cash point problem Thinking logically outline an algorithm which covers the situation of a user withdrawing cash from a cash point: Present your answer in either the form of: • a flow-chart • or pseudo code Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking logically 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Cash point problem Start Input card number BEGIN INPUT Card. Number REPEAT INPUT PIN IF PIN is wrong for this Card. Number THEN OUTPUT “Wrong PIN” END IF UNTIL PIN is correct INPUT Amount IF there are enough funds THEN Dispense Cash Update customer’s balance ELSE OUTPUT “Sorry, insufficient funds” END IF END Input PIN OUTPUT “Wrong PIN” Is it the correct PIN For this Card? No Yes Input amount to withdraw Enough Funds? No OUTPUT “Sorry” Flowchart can be extended to include a PIN number only being allowed to be entered incorrectly up to three times before the card is retained. This could be done with a counter and a further check on the counter. Yes Dispense cash Update balance Stop Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking abstractly 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Maps and Abstraction Consider the tourist map on the right of city of Manchester. How has abstraction been used in the production of this map? Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently

01001100101011000010110111001100101011101000110010000001010110100101101110011100 10000001110010011011011011110100011001010110010000001101101101101011100000111 0101011101000110000101110100011010010110111001100001011011000000111010000110100101101110011010 Thinking abstractly 1101101001011011100111001000000110011011100100000011100100110110001001101100101 01101101001000000111001101101100011101101001011011100111 Computational thinking Maps and Abstraction Areas of the city have been colour coded Road name labels have been added Picture icons of various attractions have been added Key locations have been labelled with a circled number A key has been added with icons for key building such as car parks and post offices • Major ring roads and the river have been coloured differently to clearly stand out • • • Thinking Abstractly Thinking Ahead Thinking Procedurally Thinking Logically Thinking Concurrently